The Constitution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada

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1st Edition, 2022

The purpose of this Constitution is to make a clear and concise statement of what the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada (RP Church of Canada) professes to be a sound exposition of the doctrine of the Holy Word of God, in the Old and New Testaments, respecting what the Church believes; how she worships; and how she is governed.

This Constitution comprises the following:

(a)      The standards of doctrine, which are the Westminster Confession of FaithLarger Catechism, and Shorter Catechism.

(b)      A Directory for Worship, specifying how to worship God.

(c)      A Directory for Church Government, outlining church government principles and practices.

(d)      The official vows of communicant membership and baptism; a statement on subscription for office-bearers; and the vows for licensure, ordination, and installation.

(e)      Various forms for the efficient operation of RP Church of Canada courts.

Those who have taken vows and are communicant members of the RP Church of Canada have agreed to abide by the contents of this Constitution.

Those holding office in the Church, which are pastors, teachers, elders, and deacons, are required by their vows of office to agree with, believe in, hold, and subscribe to the contents of this Constitution.

Terms used in this Constitution are to be understood as follows:

(a)    Scripturally required practices are denoted by: ‘shall’, ‘must’, ‘is’, ’is to be’, and ‘are to be’.

(b)    Those practices that are not mandated but are strongly recommended as a means of promoting unity and order for the entire Church are denoted by: ‘ordinarily’, ‘should’, and ‘ought’.

(c)    Those practices that are commended as suitable and permissible are denoted by: ‘is appropriate’, ‘is fitting’, and ‘may’.

Procedure to Amend this Constitution

This Constitution can only be amended by the highest court of the RP Church of Canada.

If the highest court is a presbytery, then a pastor, elder, or a session wanting to make an amendment must present a proposed amendment to the presbytery for consideration. There must be a minimum consideration period of one year from the date when the amendment is first submitted to the presbytery before a decision can be made. This decision must be made by secret ballot. For an amendment to be approved, at least two thirds of the voting members of the presbytery must agree with it.

If the highest court is a synod, then a pastor, elder, or a session wanting to make an amendment must first present a proposed amendment to the appropriate presbytery. The presbytery will then consider the proposal, following the approach stated above.

(a)    If the amendment is approved, then the presbytery will present the amendment to the synod.

(b)    The synod will then follow the procedure stated above.

(c)    If the amendment is not approved by the presbytery of which the pastor, elder, or a session is a member, then the pastor, elder, or a session may present the amendment to one other presbytery, which will follow the procedure stated above.

No Copyright

We believe the contents of this work set forth a sound exposition of Scripture truth and it is the desire of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada that this material be freely shared with all, rather than be restricted by a copyright. Therefore, anyone is at liberty to use material from this document without credit.


Doctrinal Standards

Introduction

The Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger Catechism, and the Shorter Catechism are the subordinate standards for the governance of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada (RP Church of Canada). They set forth an excellent systematic presentation of the teaching of Holy Scripture. They accurately define what God has revealed to mankind in his Word and are a wonderful resource which should be proactively used in the life of the Church to teach God’s people.

Every elder and deacon in the RP Church of Canada is required to accept, and will adhere to, these subordinate standards as a sincere profession of his convictions.[1][2]

The Westminster Confession of Faith of 1647

Chapter 1 – Of the Holy Scripture

1.1  Although the light of nature and the works of creation and providence do so far manifest the goodness, wisdom, and power of God, as to leave men unexcusable;[3] yet are they not sufficient to give that knowledge of God and of His will, which is necessary unto salvation.[4] Therefore it pleased the Lord, at sundry times, and in divers manners, to reveal Himself, and to declare that His will unto His Church;[5] and afterwards, for the better preserving and propagating of the truth, and for the more sure establishment and comfort of the Church against the corruption of the flesh, and the malice of Satan and of the world, to commit the same wholly unto writing:[6] which makes the Holy Scripture to be most necessary;[7] those former ways of God’s revealing His will unto His people being now ceased.[8]

1.2  Under the name of Holy Scripture, or the Word of God written, are now contained all the books of the Old and New Testament, which are these:

Of the Old Testament:

Genesis

Exodus

Leviticus

Numbers

Deuteronomy

Joshua

Judges

Ruth

1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles

Ezra

Nehemiah

Esther

Job

Psalms

Proverbs

Ecclesiastes

Song of Songs

Isaiah

Jeremiah

Lamentations

Ezekiel

Daniel

Hosea

Joel

Amos

Obadiah

Jonah

Micah

Nahum

Habakkuk

Zephaniah

Haggai

Zechariah

Malachi

Of the New Testament:

Matthew

Mark

Luke

John

Acts

Romans

1 Corinthians

2 Corinthians

Galatians

Ephesians

Philippians

Colossians

1 Thessalonians

2 Thessalonians

1 Timothy

2 Timothy

Titus

Philemon

Hebrews

James

1 Peter

2 Peter

1 John

2 John

3 John

Jude

Revelation

All which are given by inspiration of God, to be the rule of faith and life.[9]

1.3  The books commonly called Apocrypha, not being of divine inspiration, are no part of the canon of the Scripture; and therefore are of no authority in the Church of God, nor to be any otherwise approved, or made use of, than other human writings.[10]

1.4  The authority of the Holy Scripture, for which it ought to be believed and obeyed, depends not upon the testimony of any man, or Church; but wholly upon God (who is truth itself) the author thereof: and therefore it is to be received because it is the Word of God.[11]

1.5  We may be moved and induced by the testimony of the Church to a high and reverent esteem of the Holy Scripture.[12] And the heavenliness of the matter, the efficacy of the doctrine, the majesty of the style, the consent of all the parts, the scope of the whole (which is, to give all glory to God), the full discovery it makes of the only way of man’s salvation, the many other incomparable excellencies, and the entire perfection thereof, are arguments whereby it does abundantly evidence itself to be the Word of God: yet notwithstanding, our full persuasion and assurance of the infallible truth and divine authority thereof, is from the inward work of the Holy Spirit bearing witness by and with the Word in our hearts.[13]

1.6  The whole counsel of God concerning all things necessary for His own glory, man’s salvation, faith, and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture: unto which nothing at any time is to be added, whether by new revelations of the Spirit, or traditions of men.[14] Nevertheless we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the Word:[15] and that there are some circumstances concerning the worship of God, and government of the Church, common to human actions and societies, which are to be ordered by the light of nature and Christian prudence, according to the general rules of the Word, which are always to be observed.[16]

1.7  All things in Scripture are not alike plain in themselves, nor alike clear unto all:[17] yet those things which are necessary to be known, believed, and observed for salvation, are so clearly propounded and opened in some place of Scripture or other, that not only the learned, but the unlearned, in a due use of the ordinary means, may attain unto a sufficient understanding of them.[18]

1.8  The Old Testament in Hebrew (which was the native language of the people of God of old), and the New Testament in Greek (which, at the time of the writing of it was most generally known to the nations), being immediately inspired by God, and, by His singular care and providence kept pure in all ages, are therefore authentical;[19] so as, in all controversies of religion, the Church is finally to appeal unto them.[20] But, because these original tongues are not known to all the people of God, who have right unto, and interest in the Scriptures, and are commanded, in the fear of God, to read and search them,[21] therefore they are to be translated into the vulgar language of every nation unto which they come,[22] that the Word of God dwelling plentifully in all, they may worship Him in an acceptable manner;[23] and, through patience and comfort of the Scriptures, may have hope.[24]

1.9  The infallible rule of interpretation of Scripture is the Scripture itself: and therefore, when there is a question about the true and full sense of any Scripture (which is not manifold, but one), it must be searched and known by other places that speak more clearly.[25]

1.10 The supreme judge by which all controversies of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of councils, opinions of ancient writers, doctrines of men, and private spirits, are to be examined; and in whose sentence we are to rest; can be no other but the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.[26]

Chapter 2 – Of God, and of the Holy Trinity

2.1  There is but one only,[27] living, and true God:[28] who is infinite in being and perfection,[29] a most pure spirit,[30] invisible,[31] without body, parts,[32] or passions,[33] immutable,[34] immense,[35] eternal,[36] incomprehensible,[37] almighty,[38] most wise,[39] most holy,[40] most free,[41] most absolute,[42] working all things according to the counsel of His own immutable and most righteous will,[43] for His own glory;[44] most loving,[45] gracious, merciful, long-suffering, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin;[46] the rewarder of them that diligently seek Him;[47] and withal, most just and terrible in His judgments,[48] hating all sin,[49] and who will by no means clear the guilty.[50]

2.2  God has all life,[51] glory,[52] goodness,[53] blessedness,[54] in and of Himself; and is alone in and unto Himself all-sufficient, not standing in need of any creatures which He has made,[55] nor deriving any glory from them,[56] but only manifesting His own glory in, by, unto, and upon them: He is the alone fountain of all being, of whom, through whom, and to whom are all things;[57] and has most sovereign dominion over them, to do by them, for them, or upon them whatsoever Himself pleases.[58] In His sight all things are open and manifest;[59] His knowledge is infinite, infallible, and independent upon the creature,[60] so as nothing is to Him contingent, or uncertain.[61] He is most holy in all His counsels, in all His works, and in all His commands.[62] To Him is due from angels and men, and every other creature, whatsoever worship, service, or obedience He is pleased to require of them.[63]

2.3  In the unity of the Godhead there be three persons, of one substance, power, and eternity; God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.[64] The Father is of none, neither begotten, nor proceeding: the Son is eternally begotten of the Father:[65] the Holy Ghost eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son.[66]

Chapter 3 – Of God’s Eternal Decree

3.1  God from all eternity did, by the most wise and holy counsel of His own will, freely, and unchangeably ordain whatsoever comes to pass:[67] yet so, as thereby neither is God the author of sin,[68] nor is violence offered to the will of the creatures, nor is the liberty or contingency of second causes taken away, but rather established.[69]

3.2  Although God knows whatsoever may or can come to pass upon all supposed conditions,[70] yet has He not decreed anything because He foresaw it as future, or as that which would come to pass upon such conditions.[71]

3.3  By the decree of God, for the manifestation of His glory, some men and angels[72] are predestinated unto everlasting life, and others fore-ordained to everlasting death.[73]

3.4  These angels and men, thus predestinated, and fore-ordained, are particularly and unchangeably designed, and their number so certain and definite, that it cannot be either increased or diminished.[74]

3.5  Those of mankind that are predestinated unto life, God, before the foundation of the world was laid, according to His eternal and immutable purpose, and the secret counsel and good pleasure of His will, has chosen, in Christ, unto everlasting glory,[75] out of His mere free grace and love, without any foresight of faith or good works, or perseverance in either of them, or any other thing in the creature, as conditions, or causes moving Him thereunto:[76] and all to the praise of His glorious grace.[77]

3.6. As God has appointed the elect unto glory, so has He, by the eternal and most free purpose of His will, fore-ordained all the means thereunto.[78] Wherefore they who are elected, being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ,[79] are effectually called unto faith in Christ by His Spirit working in due season, are justified, adopted, sanctified,[80] and kept by His power through faith, unto salvation.[81] Neither are any other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified, and saved, but the elect only.[82]

3.7  The rest of mankind God was pleased, according to the unsearchable counsel of His own will, whereby He extends or withholds mercy, as He pleases, for the glory of His sovereign power over His creatures, to pass by; and to ordain them to dishonour and wrath, for their sin, to the praise of His glorious justice.[83]

3.8  The doctrine of this high mystery of predestination is to be handled with special prudence and care,[84] that men attending the will of God revealed in His Word, and yielding obedience thereunto, may, from the certainty of their effectual vocation, be assured of their eternal election.[85] So shall this doctrine afford matter of praise, reverence, and admiration of God,[86] and of humility, diligence, and abundant consolation to all that sincerely obey the Gospel.[87]

Chapter 4 – Of Creation

4.1  It pleased God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost,[88] for the manifestation of the glory of His eternal power, wisdom, and goodness,[89] in the beginning, to create, or make of nothing, the world, and all things therein whether visible or invisible, in the space of six days; and all very good.[90], [91]

4.2  After God had made all other creatures, He created man, male and female,[92] with reasonable and immortal souls,[93] endued with knowledge, righteousness, and true holiness, after His own image;[94] having the law of God written in their hearts,[95] and power to fulfil it:[96] and yet under a possibility of transgressing, being left to the liberty of their own will, which was subject unto change.[97] Beside this law written in their hearts, they received a command, not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, which while they kept, they were happy in their communion with God,[98] and had dominion over the creatures.[99]

Chapter 5 – Of Providence

5.1  God the great Creator of all things does uphold,[100] direct, dispose, and govern all creatures, actions, and things,[101] from the greatest even to the least,[102] by His most wise and holy providence,[103] according to His infallible fore-knowledge,[104] and the free and immutable counsel of His own will,[105] to the praise of the glory of His wisdom, power, justice, goodness, and mercy.[106]

5.2  Although, in relation to the fore-knowledge and decree of God, the first Cause, all things come to pass immutably, and infallibly:[107] yet, by the same providence, He orders them to fall out, according to the nature of second causes, either necessarily, freely, or contingently.[108]

5.3  God in His ordinary providence makes use of means,[109] yet is free to work without,[110] above,[111] and against them at His pleasure.[112]

5.4  The almighty power, unsearchable wisdom, and infinite goodness of God so far manifest themselves in His providence, that it extends itself even to the first fall, and all other sins of angels and men;[113] and that not by a bare permission,[114] but such as has joined with it a most wise and powerful bounding,[115] and otherwise ordering and governing of them, in a manifold dispensation, to His own holy ends;[116] yet so, as the sinfulness thereof proceeded only from the creature, and not from God, who, being most holy and righteous, neither is, nor can be, the author or approver of sin.[117]

5.5  The most wise, righteous, and gracious God does oftentimes leave for a season His own children to manifold temptations, and the corruption of their own hearts, to chastise them for their former sins, or to discover unto them the hidden strength of corruption, and deceitfulness of their hearts, that they may be humbled;[118] and, to raise them to a more close and constant dependence for their support upon Himself, and to make them more watchful against all future occasions of sin, and for sundry other just and holy ends.[119]

5.6  As for those wicked and ungodly men whom God, as a righteous Judge, for former sins, does blind and harden,[120] from them He not only withholds His grace, whereby they might have been enlightened in their understandings, and wrought upon in their hearts;[121] but sometimes also withdraws the gifts which they had,[122] and exposes them to such objects as their corruption makes occasions of sin;[123] and, withal, gives them over to their own lusts, the temptations of the world, and the power of Satan:[124] whereby it comes to pass that they harden themselves, even under those means which God uses for the softening of others.[125]

5.7  As the providence of God does in general reach to all creatures, so after a most special manner, it takes care of His Church, and disposes all things to the good thereof.[126]

Chapter 6 – Of the Fall of Man, of Sin, and of the Punishment thereof

6.1  Our first parents, being seduced by the subtilty and temptation of Satan, sinned, in eating the forbidden fruit.[127] This their sin God was pleased, according to His wise and holy counsel, to permit, having purposed to order it to His own glory.[128]

6.2  By this sin they fell from their original righteousness and communion, with God,[129] and so became dead in sin,[130] and wholly defiled in all the parts and faculties of soul and body.[131]

6.3  They being the root of all mankind, the guilt of this sin was imputed,[132] and the same death in sin and corrupted nature conveyed, to all their posterity descending from them by ordinary generation.[133]

6.4  From this original corruption, whereby we are utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite to all good,[134] and wholly inclined to all evil,[135] do proceed all actual transgressions.[136]

6.5  This corruption of nature, during this life, does remain in those that are regenerated;[137] and although it be, through Christ, pardoned and mortified, yet both itself and all the motions thereof are truly and properly sin.[138]

6.6  Every sin, both original and actual, being a transgression of the righteous law of God, and contrary thereunto,[139] doth, in its own nature, bring guilt upon the sinner;[140] whereby he is bound over to the wrath of God,[141] and curse of the law,[142] and so made subject to death,[143] with all miseries spiritual,[144] temporal,[145] and eternal.[146]

Chapter 7 – Of God’s Covenant with Man

7.1  The distance between God and the creature is so great, that although reasonable creatures do owe obedience unto Him as their Creator, yet they could never have any fruition of Him as their blessedness and reward, but by some voluntary condescension on God’s part, which He has been pleased to express by way of covenant.[147]

7.2  The first covenant made with man was a covenant of works,[148] wherein life was promised to Adam, and in him to his posterity,[149] upon condition of perfect and personal obedience.[150]

7.3  Man by his fall having made himself incapable of life by that covenant, the Lord was pleased to make a second,[151] commonly called the covenant of grace; wherein He freely offers unto sinners life and salvation by Jesus Christ, requiring of them faith in Him, that they may be saved,[152] and promising to give unto all those that are ordained unto life His Holy Spirit, to make them willing and able to believe.[153]

7.4  This covenant of grace is frequently set forth in Scripture by the name of a Testament, in reference to the death of Jesus Christ the Testator, and to the everlasting inheritance, with all things belonging to it, therein bequeathed.[154]

7.5  This covenant was differently administered in the time of the law, and in the time of the gospel:[155] under the law, it was administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types and ordinances delivered to the people of the Jews, all fore-signifying Christ to come:[156] which were, for that time, sufficient and efficacious, through the operation of the Spirit, to instruct and build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah,[157] by whom they had full remission of sins, and eternal salvation; and is called, the Old Testament.[158]

7.6  Under the gospel, when Christ, the substance,[159] was exhibited, the ordinances in which this covenant is dispensed are the preaching of the Word, and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper:[160] which, though fewer in number, and administered with more simplicity, and less outward glory; yet, in them, it is held forth in more fulness, evidence, and spiritual efficacy,[161] to all nations, both Jews and Gentiles;[162] and is called the New Testament.[163] There are not therefore two covenants of grace, differing in substance, but one and the same, under various dispensations.[164]

Chapter 8 – Of Christ the Mediator

8.1  It pleased God, in His eternal purpose, to choose and ordain the Lord Jesus, His only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and man;[165] the Prophet,[166] Priest,[167] and King,[168] the Head and Saviour of His Church,[169] the Heir of all things,[170] and Judge of the world:[171] unto whom He did from all eternity give a people, to be His seed,[172] and to be by Him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified, and glorified.[173]

8.2  The Son of God, the second person in the Trinity, being very and eternal God, of one substance and equal with the Father, did, when the fulness of time was come, take upon Him man’s nature,[174] with all the essential properties and common infirmities thereof, yet without sin:[175] being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the virgin Mary, of her substance.[176] So that two whole, perfect, and distinct natures, the Godhead and the manhood, were inseparably joined together in one person, without conversion, composition, or confusion.[177] Which person is very God, and very man, yet one Christ, the only Mediator between God and man.[178]

8.3  The Lord Jesus, in His human nature thus united to the divine, was sanctified and anointed with the Holy Spirit, above measure,[179] having in Him all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge;[180] in whom it pleased the Father that all fulness should dwell;[181] to the end that, being holy, harmless, undefiled, and full of grace and truth,[182] He might be thoroughly furnished to execute the office of a mediator and surety.[183] Which office He took not unto Himself, but was thereunto called by His Father,[184] who put all power and judgment into His hand, and gave Him commandment to execute the same.[185]

8.4  This office the Lord Jesus did most willingly undertake;[186] which that He might discharge, He was made under the law,[187] and did perfectly fulfil it,[188] endured most grievous torments immediately in His soul,[189] and most painful sufferings in His body;[190] was crucified, and died;[191] was buried, and remained under the power of death; yet saw no corruption.[192] On the third day He arose from the dead,[193] with the same body in which He suffered,[194] with which also he ascended into heaven, and there sits at the right hand of His Father,[195] making intercession,[196] and shall return to judge men and angels at the end of the world.[197]

8.5  The Lord Jesus, by His perfect obedience, and sacrifice of Himself, which He, through the eternal Spirit, once offered up unto God, has fully satisfied the justice of His Father;[198] and purchased, not only reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the kingdom of heaven, for all those whom the Father has given unto Him.[199]

8.6  Although the work of redemption was not actually wrought by Christ till after His incarnation, yet the virtue, efficacy, and benefits thereof were communicated unto the elect in all ages successively from the beginning of the world, in and by those promises, types, and sacrifices, wherein He was revealed, and signified to be the seed of the woman which should bruise the serpent’s head; and the Lamb slain from the beginning of the world: being yesterday and to-day the same, and forever.[200]

8.7  Christ, in the work of mediation, acts according to both natures, by each nature doing that which is proper to itself:[201] yet, by reason of the unity of the person, that which is proper to one nature, is sometimes in Scripture attributed to the person denominated by the other nature.[202]

8.8  To all those for whom Christ has purchased redemption, He does certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same,[203] making intercession for them,[204] and revealing unto them, in and by the Word, the mysteries of salvation,[205] effectually persuading them by His Spirit to believe and obey, and governing their hearts by His Word and Spirit;[206] overcoming all their enemies by His almighty power and wisdom, in such manner, and ways, as are most consonant to His wonderful and unsearchable dispensation.[207]

Chapter 9 – Of Free Will

9.1  God has endued the will of man with that natural liberty, that is neither forced, nor by any absolute necessity of nature determined to good or evil.[208]

9.2  Man, in his state of innocency, had freedom and power to will and to do that which was good, and well pleasing to God;[209] but yet, mutably, so that he might fall from it.[210]

9.3  Man, by his fall into a state of sin, has wholly lost all ability of will to any spiritual good accompanying salvation:[211] so as, a natural man, being altogether averse from that good,[212] and dead in sin,[213] is not able, by his own strength, to convert himself, or to prepare himself thereunto.[214]

9.4  When God converts a sinner, and translates him into the state of grace, He frees him from his natural bondage under sin;[215] and, by His grace alone, enables him freely to will and to do that which is spiritually good;[216] yet so, as that by reason of his remaining corruption, he does not perfectly, nor only, will that which is good, but does also will that which is evil.[217]

9.5  The will of man is made perfectly and immutably free to do good alone, in the state of glory only.[218]

Chapter 10 – Of Effectual Calling

10.1 All those whom God has predestinated unto life, and those only, He is pleased in His appointed and accepted time effectually to call,[219] by His Word and Spirit,[220] out of that state of sin and death, in which they are by nature, to grace and salvation by Jesus Christ;[221] enlightening their minds spiritually and savingly to understand the things of God,[222] taking away their heart of stone, and giving unto them a heart of flesh;[223] renewing their wills, and, by His almighty power determining them to that which is good,[224] and effectually drawing them to Jesus Christ:[225] yet so, as they come most freely, being made willing by His grace.[226]

10.2 This effectual call is of God’s free and special grace alone, not from anything at all foreseen in man,[227] who is altogether passive therein, until being quickened and renewed by the Holy Spirit,[228] he is thereby enabled to answer this call, and to embrace the grace offered and conveyed in it.[229]

10.3 Elect infants, dying in infancy, are regenerated, and saved by Christ through the Spirit,[230] who works when, and where, and how He pleases:[231] so also, are all other elect persons who are uncapable of being outwardly called by the ministry of the Word.[232]

10.4 Others, not elected, although they may be called by the ministry of the Word,[233] and may have some common operations of the Spirit,[234] yet they never truly come unto Christ, and therefore cannot be saved:[235] much less can men, not professing the Christian religion, be saved in any other way whatsoever, be they never so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature, and the law of that religion they do profess.[236] And to assert and maintain that they may, is very pernicious, and to be detested.[237]

Chapter 11 – Of Justification

11.1 Those whom God effectually calls, He also freely justifies;[238] not by infusing righteousness into them, but by pardoning their sins, and by accounting and accepting their persons as righteous, not for anything wrought in them, or done by them, but for Christ’s sake alone; nor by imputing faith itself, the act of believing, or any other evangelical obedience to them, as their righteousness, but by imputing the obedience and satisfaction of Christ unto them,[239] they receiving and resting on Him and His righteousness by faith; which faith they have not of themselves, it is the gift of God.[240]

11.2 Faith, thus receiving and resting on Christ and His righteousness, is the alone instrument of justification;[241] yet is it not alone in the person justified, but is ever accompanied with all other saving graces, and is no dead faith, but works by love.[242]

11.3 Christ, by His obedience and death, did fully discharge the debt of all those that are thus justified, and did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to His Father’s justice in their behalf.[243] Yet, inasmuch as He was given by the Father for them;[244] and His obedience and satisfaction accepted in their stead;[245] and both freely, not for anything in them; their justification is only of free grace;[246] that both the exact justice, and rich grace of God, might be glorified in the justification of sinners.[247]

11.4 God did, from all eternity, decree to justify all the elect,[248] and Christ did, in the fulness of time, die for their sins, and rise again for their justification:[249] nevertheless, they are not justified, until the Holy Spirit doth, in due time, actually apply Christ unto them.[250]

11.5 God does continue to forgive the sins of those that are justified:[251] and although they can never fall from the state of justification;[252] yet they may, by their sins, fall under God’s fatherly displeasure, and not have the light of His countenance restored unto them, until they humble themselves, confess their sins, beg pardon, and renew their faith and repentance.[253]

11.6 The justification of believers under the old testament was, in all these respects, one and the same with the justification of believers under the new testament.[254]

Chapter 12 – Of Adoption

12.1 All those that are justified, God vouchsafes, in and for His only Son Jesus Christ, to make partakers of the grace of adoption:[255] by which they are taken into the number, and enjoy the liberties and privileges of the children of God,[256] have His name put upon them,[257] receive the spirit of adoption,[258] have access to the throne of grace with boldness,[259] are enabled to cry, Abba, Father,[260] are pitied,[261] protected,[262] provided for,[263] and chastened by Him as by a Father;[264] yet never cast off,[265] but sealed to the day of redemption,[266] and inherit the promises,[267] as heirs of everlasting salvation.[268]

Chapter 13 – Of Sanctification

13.1 They who are once effectually called and regenerated, having a new heart and a new spirit created in them, are further sanctified, really and personally, through the virtue of Christ’s death and resurrection,[269] by His Word and Spirit dwelling in them:[270] the dominion of the whole body of sin is destroyed,[271] and the several lusts thereof are more and more weakened and mortified;[272] and they more and more quickened and strengthened in all saving graces,[273] to the practice of true holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.[274]

13.2 This sanctification is throughout, in the whole man;[275] yet imperfect in this life, there abiding still some remnants of corruption in every part:[276] whence arises a continual and irreconcilable war; the flesh lusting against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh.[277]

13.3 In which war, although the remaining corruption, for a time, may much prevail;[278] yet through the continual supply of strength from the sanctifying Spirit of Christ, the regenerate part does overcome;[279] and so, the saints grow in grace,[280] perfecting holiness in the fear of God.[281]

Chapter 14 – Of Saving Faith

14.1 The grace of faith, whereby the elect are enabled to believe to the saving of their souls,[282] is the work of the Spirit of Christ in their hearts;[283] and is ordinarily wrought by the ministry of the Word:[284] by which also, and by the administration of the sacraments, and prayer, it is increased and strengthened.[285]

14.2 By this faith, a Christian believes to be true whatsoever is revealed in the Word, for the authority of God Himself speaking therein;[286] and acts differently upon that which each particular passage thereof contains; yielding obedience to the commands,[287] trembling at the threatenings,[288] and embracing the promises of God for this life, and that which is to come.[289] But the principal acts of saving faith are accepting, receiving, and resting upon Christ alone for justification, sanctification, and eternal life, by virtue of the covenant of grace.[290]

14.3 This faith is different in degrees, weak or strong;[291] may be often and many ways assailed, and weakened, but gets the victory;[292] growing up in many to the attainment of a full assurance through Christ,[293] who is both the author and finisher of our faith.[294]

Chapter 15 – Of Repentance unto Life

15.1 Repentance unto life is an evangelical grace,[295] the doctrine whereof is to be preached by every minister of the Gospel, as well as that of faith in Christ.[296]

15.2 By it, a sinner, out of the sight and sense not only of the danger, but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins, as contrary to the holy nature and righteous law of God; and upon the apprehension of his mercy in Christ to such as are penitent, so grieves for, and hates his sins, as to turn from them all unto God,[297] purposing and endeavouring to walk with Him in all the ways of His commandments.[298]

15.3 Although repentance be not to be rested in, as any satisfaction for sin, or any cause of the pardon thereof,[299] which is the act of God’s free grace in Christ;[300] yet is it of such necessity to all sinners, that none may expect pardon without it.[301]

15.4 As there is no sin so small, but it deserves damnation,[302] so there is no sin so great, that it can bring damnation upon those who truly repent.[303]

15.5 Men ought not to content themselves with a general repentance, but it is every man’s duty to endeavour to repent of his particular sins, particularly.[304]

15.6 As every man is bound to make private confession of his sins to God, praying for the pardon thereof;[305] upon which, and the forsaking of them, he shall find mercy:[306] so, he that scandalizes his brother, or the Church of Christ, ought to be willing, by a private or public confession, and sorrow for his sin, to declare his repentance to those that are offended,[307] who are thereupon to be reconciled to him, and in love to receive him.[308]

Chapter 16 – Of Good Works

16.1 Good works are only such as God has commanded in His holy Word,[309] and not such as, without the warrant thereof, are devised by men, out of blind zeal, or upon any pretence of good intention.[310]

16.2 These good works, done in obedience to God’s commandments, are the fruits and evidences of a true and lively faith:[311] and by them believers manifest their thankfulness,[312] strengthen their assurance,[313] edify their brethren,[314] adorn the profession of the Gospel,[315] stop the mouths of the adversaries,[316] and glorify God,[317] whose workmanship they are, created in Christ Jesus thereunto;[318] that, having their fruit unto holiness, they may have the end, eternal life.[319]

16.3 Their ability to do good works is not at all of themselves, but wholly from the Spirit of Christ.[320] And that they may be enabled thereunto, besides the graces they have already received, there is required an actual influence of the same Holy Spirit, to work in them to will and to do of His good pleasure:[321] yet are they not hereupon to grow negligent, as if they were not bound to perform any duty, unless upon a special motion of the Spirit; but they ought to be diligent in stirring up the grace of God that is in them.[322]

16.4 They, who in their obedience attain to the greatest height which is possible in this life, are so far from being able to supererogate, and to do more than God requires, as that they fall short of much which in duty they are bound to do.[323]

16.5 We cannot, by our best works, merit pardon of sin, or eternal life at the hand of God, by reason of the great disproportion that is between them and the glory to come; and the infinite distance that is between us and God, whom, by them, we can neither profit, nor satisfy for the debt of our former sins,[324] but when we have done all we can, we have done but our duty, and are unprofitable servants;[325] and because, as they are good, they proceed from His Spirit;[326] and as they are wrought by us, they are defiled, and mixed with so much weakness and imperfection, that they cannot endure the severity of God’s judgment.[327]

16.6 Yet notwithstanding, the persons of believers being accepted through Christ, their good works also are accepted in Him,[328] not as though they were in this life wholly unblameable and unreproveable in God’s sight;[329] but that He, looking upon them in His Son, is pleased to accept and reward that which is sincere, although accompanied with many weaknesses and imperfections.[330]

16.7 Works done by unregenerate men, although, for the matter of them, they may be things which God commands, and of good use both to themselves and others:[331] yet, because they proceed not from a heart purified by faith;[332] nor are done in a right manner according to the Word;[333] nor to a right end, the glory of God;[334] they are therefore sinful, and cannot please God, or make a man meet to receive grace from God.[335] And yet, their neglect of them is more sinful, and displeasing unto God.[336]

Chapter 17 – Of the Perseverance of the Saints

17.1 They, whom God has accepted in His Beloved, effectually called, and sanctified by His Spirit, can neither totally, nor finally, fall away from the state of grace: but shall certainly persevere therein to the end, and be eternally saved.[337]

17.2 This perseverance of the saints depends not upon their own free will, but upon the immutability of the decree of election, flowing from the free and unchangeable love of God the Father;[338] upon the efficacy of the merit and intercession of Jesus Christ;[339] the abiding of the Spirit, and of the seed of God within them;[340] and the nature of the covenant of grace:[341] from all which arises also the certainty and infallibility thereof.[342]

17.3 Nevertheless, they may, through the temptations of Satan and of the world, the prevalence of corruption remaining in them, and the neglect of the means of their preservation, fall into grievous sins;[343] and, for a time, continue therein:[344] whereby they incur God’s displeasure,[345] and grieve His Holy Spirit,[346] come to be deprived of some measure of their graces and comforts,[347] have their hearts hardened,[348] and their consciences wounded,[349] hurt and scandalize others,[350] and bring temporal judgments upon themselves.[351]

Chapter 18 – Of the Assurance of Grace and Salvation

18.1 Although hypocrites and other unregenerate men may vainly deceive themselves with false hopes, and carnal presumptions of being in the favour of God, and estate of salvation;[352] which hope of theirs shall perish:[353] yet such as truly believe in the Lord Jesus, and love Him in sincerity, endeavouring to walk in all good conscience before Him, may, in this life, be certainly assured that they are in the state of grace,[354] and may rejoice in the hope of the glory of God, which hope shall never make them ashamed.[355]

18.2 This certainty is not a bare conjectural and probable persuasion, grounded upon a fallible hope;[356] but an infallible assurance of faith, founded upon the divine truth of the promises of salvation,[357] the inward evidence of those graces unto which these promises are made,[358] the testimony of the Spirit of adoption witnessing with our spirits that we are the children of God:[359] which Spirit is the earnest of our inheritance, whereby we are sealed to the day of redemption.[360]

18.3 This infallible assurance does not so belong to the essence of faith, but that a true believer may wait long, and conflict with many difficulties before he be partaker of it:[361] yet, being enabled by the Spirit to know the things which are freely given him of God, he may without extraordinary revelation, in the right use of ordinary means, attain thereunto.[362] And therefore it is the duty of everyone to give all diligence to make his calling and election sure;[363] that thereby his heart may be enlarged in peace and joy in the Holy Ghost, in love and thankfulness to God, and in strength and cheerfulness in the duties of obedience, the proper fruits of this assurance:[364] so far is it from inclining men to looseness.[365]

18.4 True believers may have the assurance of their salvation divers ways shaken, diminished, and intermitted; as, by negligence in preserving of it, by falling into some special sin, which wounds the conscience and grieves the Spirit; by some sudden or vehement temptation, by God’s withdrawing the light of His countenance, and suffering even such as fear Him to walk in darkness and to have no light:[366] yet are they never so utterly destitute of that seed of God, and life of faith, that love of Christ and the brethren, that sincerity of heart, and conscience of duty, out of which, by the operation of the Spirit, this assurance may, in due time, be revived;[367] and by the which, in the mean time, they are supported from utter despair.[368]

Chapter 19 – Of the Law of God

19.1 God gave to Adam a law, as a covenant of works, by which He bound him and all his posterity to personal, entire, exact, and perpetual obedience; promised life upon the fulfilling, and threatened death upon the breach of it: and endued him with power and ability to keep it.[369]

19.2 This law, after his fall, continued to be a perfect rule of righteousness, and, as such, was delivered by God upon Mount Sinai, in ten commandments, and written in two tables:[370] the four first commandments containing our duty towards God; and the other six our duty to man.[371]

19.3 Beside this law, commonly called moral, God was pleased to give to the people of Israel, as a church under age, ceremonial laws, containing several typical ordinances, partly of worship, prefiguring Christ, His graces, actions, sufferings, and benefits;[372] and partly holding forth divers instructions of moral duties.[373] All which ceremonial laws are now abrogated, under the new testament.[374]

19.4 To them also, as a body politic, He gave sundry judicial laws, which expired together with the State of that people; not obliging any other now, further than the general equity thereof may require.[375]

19.5 The moral law does for ever bind all, as well justified persons as others, to the obedience thereof;[376] and that, not only in regard of the matter contained in it, but also in respect of the authority of God the Creator, who gave it:[377] neither does Christ, in the Gospel, any way dissolve, but much strengthen this obligation.[378]

19.6 Although true believers be not under the law, as a covenant of works, to be thereby justified, or condemned;[379] yet is it of great use to them, as well as to others; in that, as a rule of life informing them of the will of God, and their duty, it directs, and binds them to walk accordingly;[380] discovering also the sinful pollutions of their nature, hearts, and lives;[381] so as, examining themselves thereby, they may come to further conviction of, humiliation for, and hatred against sin;[382] together with a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ, and the perfection of His obedience.[383] It is likewise of use to the regenerate, to restrain their corruptions, in that it forbids sin:[384] and the threatenings of it serve to show what even their sins deserve; and what afflictions, in this life, they may expect for them, although freed from the curse thereof threatened in the law.[385] The promises of it, in like manner, show them God’s approbation of obedience, and what blessings they may expect upon the performance thereof;[386] although not as due to them by the law, as a covenant of works.[387] So as, a man’s doing good, and refraining from evil, because the law encourages to the one and deterrers from the other, is no evidence of his being under the law; and not under grace.[388]

19.7 Neither are the forementioned uses of the law contrary to the grace of the Gospel, but do sweetly comply with it;[389] the Spirit of Christ subduing and enabling the will of man to do that, freely and cheerfully, which the will of God, revealed in the law, requires to be done.[390]

Chapter 20 – Of Christian Liberty, and Liberty of Conscience

20.1 The liberty which Christ has purchased for believers under the Gospel consists in their freedom from the guilt of sin, and condemning wrath of God, the curse of the moral law;[391] and, in their being delivered from this present evil world, bondage to Satan, and dominion of sin;[392] from the evil of afflictions, the sting of death, the victory of the grave, and everlasting damnation;[393] as also, in their free access to God,[394] and their yielding obedience unto Him, not out of slavish fear, but a child-like love and willing mind.[395] All which were common also to believers under the law.[396] But, under the new testament, the liberty of Christians is further enlarged, in their freedom from the yoke of the ceremonial law, to which the Jewish Church was subjected;[397] and in greater boldness of access to the throne of grace,[398] and in fuller communications of the free Spirit of God, than believers under the law did ordinarily partake of.[399]

20.2 God alone is Lord of the conscience,[400] and has left it free from the doctrines and commandments of men, which are in any thing contrary to His Word; or beside it, in matters of faith or worship.[401] So that, to believe such doctrines, or to obey such commands, out of conscience,[402] is to betray true liberty of conscience: and the requiring of an implicit faith, and an absolute and blind obedience is to destroy liberty of conscience, and reason also.[403]

20.3 They who, upon pretence of Christian liberty, do practice any sin, or cherish any lust, do thereby destroy the end of Christian liberty, which is, that being delivered out of the hands of our enemies, we might serve the Lord, without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him, all the days of our life.[404]

20.4 And because the powers which God has ordained, and the liberty which Christ has purchased, are not intended by God to destroy, but mutually to uphold and preserve one another; they who, upon pretence of Christian liberty, shall oppose any lawful power, or the lawful exercise of it, whether it be civil or ecclesiastical, resist the ordinance of God.[405] And, for their publishing of such opinions, or maintaining of such practices, as are contrary to the light of nature, or to the known principles of Christianity, whether concerning faith, worship, or conversation; or, to the power of godliness; or, such erroneous opinions or practices, as either in their own nature, or in the manner of publishing or maintaining them, are destructive to the external peace and order which Christ has established in the Church, they may lawfully be called to account, and proceeded against by the censures of the Church,[406] and by the power of the civil magistrate.[407]

Chapter 21 – Of Religious Worship and the Sabbath Day

21.1 The light of nature shows that there is a God, who has lordship and sovereignty over all, is good, and does good unto all, and is therefore to be feared, loved, praised, called upon, trusted in, and served, with all the heart, and with all the soul, and with all the might.[408] But the acceptable way of worshipping the true God is instituted by Himself, and so limited by His own revealed will, that He may not be worshipped according to the imaginations and devices of men, or the suggestions of Satan, under any visible representation, or any other way not prescribed in the holy Scripture.[409]

21.2 Religious worship is to be given to God, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; and to Him alone;[410] not to angels, saints, or any other creature:[411] and since the fall, not without a Mediator; nor in the mediation of any other but of Christ alone.[412]

21.3 Prayer, with thanksgiving, being one special part of religious worship,[413] is by God required of all men:[414] and that it may be accepted, it is to be made in the name of the Son,[415] by the help of His Spirit,[416] according to His will,[417] with understanding, reverence, humility, fervency, faith, love, and perseverance;[418] and, if vocal, in a known tongue.[419]

21.4 Prayer is to be made for things lawful;[420] and for all sorts of men living, or that shall live hereafter:[421] but not for the dead,[422] nor for those of whom it may be known that they have sinned the sin unto death.[423]

21.5 The reading of the Scriptures with godly fear,[424] the sound preaching[425] and conscionable hearing of the Word, in obedience unto God, with understanding, faith and reverence;[426] singing of psalms with grace in the heart;[427] as also, the due administration and worthy receiving of the sacraments instituted by Christ; are all parts of the ordinary religious worship of God:[428] beside religious oaths,[429] vows,[430] solemn fastings,[431] and thanksgivings, upon special occasions,[432] which are, in their several times and seasons, to be used in a holy and religious manner.[433]

21.6 Neither prayer, nor any other part of religious worship, is now under the Gospel either tied unto, or made more acceptable by any place in which it is performed, or towards which it is directed:[434] but God is to be worshipped everywhere,[435] in spirit and truth;[436] as in private families[437] daily,[438] and in secret each one by himself;[439] so, more solemnly, in the public assemblies, which are not carelessly or wilfully to be neglected, or forsaken, when God, by His Word or providence, calls thereunto.[440]

21.7 As it is the law of nature, that, in general, a due proportion of time be set apart for the worship of God; so, in His Word, by a positive, moral, and perpetual commandment, binding all men, in all ages, He has particularly appointed one day in seven, for a Sabbath, to be kept holy unto Him:[441] which, from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, was the last day of the week; and, from the resurrection of Christ, was changed into the first day of the week,[442] which, in Scripture, is called the Lord’s Day,[443] and is to be continued to the end of the world, as the Christian Sabbath.[444]

21.8 This Sabbath is then kept holy unto the Lord, when men, after a due preparing of their hearts, and ordering of their common affairs beforehand, do not only observe an holy rest, all the day, from their own works, words, and thoughts about their worldly employments and recreations,[445] but also are taken up the whole time in the public and private exercises of His worship, and in the duties of necessity and mercy.[446]

Chapter 22 – Of Lawful Oaths and Vows

22.1 A lawful oath is a part of religious worship,[447] wherein, upon just occasion, the person swearing solemnly calls God to witness what he asserts, or promises, and to judge him according to the truth or falsehood of what he swears.[448]

22.2 The name of God only is that by which men ought to swear; and therein it is to be used with all holy fear and reverence.[449] Therefore, to swear vainly or rashly, by that glorious and dreadful Name; or, to swear at all by any other thing, is sinful, and to be abhorred.[450] Yet, as in matters of weight and moment, an oath is warranted by the Word of God, under the New Testament, as well as under the Old;[451] so a lawful oath, being imposed by lawful authority, in such matters ought to be taken.[452]

22.3 Whosoever takes an oath ought duly to consider the weightiness of so solemn an act; and therein to avouch nothing, but what he is fully persuaded is the truth.[453] Neither may any man bind himself by oath to anything but what is good and just, and what he believes so to be, and what he is able and resolved to perform.[454] Yet is it a sin to refuse an oath touching anything that is good and just, being imposed by lawful authority.[455]

22.4 An oath is to be taken in the plain and common sense of the words, without equivocation, or mental reservation.[456] It cannot oblige to sin: but in anything not sinful, being taken, it binds to performance, although to a man’s own hurt.[457] Not is it to be violated, although made to heretics, or infidels.[458]

22.5 A vow is of the like nature with a promissory oath, and ought to be made with the like religious care, and to be performed with the like faithfulness.[459]

22.6 It is not to be made to any creature, but to God alone:[460] and that it may be accepted, it is to be made voluntarily, out of faith, and conscience of duty, in way of thankfulness for mercy received, or for the obtaining of what we want; whereby we more strictly bind ourselves to necessary duties; or to other things, so far and so long as they may fitly conduce thereunto.[461]

22.7 No man may vow to do anything forbidden in the Word of God, or what would hinder any duty therein commanded, or which is not in his own power, and for the performance whereof he has no promise of ability from God.[462] In which respects, Popish monastical vows of perpetual single life, professed poverty, and regular obedience, are so far from being degrees of higher perfection, that they are superstitious and sinful snares, in which no Christian may entangle himself.[463]

Chapter 23 – Of the Civil Magistrate

23.1 God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, has ordained civil magistrates, to be, under Him, over the people, for His own glory, and the public good: and, to this end, has armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil doers.[464]

23.2 It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto;[465] in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth;[466] so for that end, they may lawfully now, under the New Testament, wage war, upon just and necessary occasion.[467]

23.3 The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the Word and sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven:[468] yet he has authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be. preserved in the Church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire; that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed; all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed; and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administrated, and observed.[469] For the better effecting whereof, he has power to call synods, to be present at them, and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be according to the mind of God.[470], [471]

23.4 It is the duty of people to pray for magistrates,[472] to honour their persons,[473] to pay them tribute or other dues,[474] to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority, for conscience’ sake.[475] Infidelity, or difference in religion, does not make void the magistrates’ just and legal authority, nor free the people from their due obedience to them:[476] from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted,[477] much less has the Pope any power and jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and, least of all, to deprive them of their dominions, or lives, if he shall judge them to be heretics, or upon any other pretence whatsoever.[478]

Chapter 24 – Of Marriage and Divorce

24.1 Marriage is to be between one man and one woman: neither is it lawful for any man to have more than one wife, nor for any woman to have more than one husband; at the same time.[479]

24.2 Marriage was ordained for the mutual help of husband and wife,[480] for the increase of mankind with a legitimate issue, and of the Church with an holy seed;[481] and for preventing of uncleanness.[482]

24.3 It is lawful for all sorts of people to marry, who are able with judgment to give their consent.[483] Yet is it the duty of Christians to marry only in the Lord:[484] and therefore such as profess the true reformed religion should not marry with infidels, papists, or other idolaters: neither should such as are godly be unequally yoked, by marrying with such as are notoriously wicked in their life, or maintain damnable heresies.[485]

24.4 Marriage ought not to be within the degrees of consanguinity or affinity forbidden by the Word;[486] nor can such incestuous marriages ever be made lawful by any law of man or consent of parties, so as those persons may live together as man and wife.[487] The man may not marry any of his wife’s kindred nearer in blood than he may of his own; nor the woman of her husband’s kindred nearer in blood than of her own.[488], [489]

24.5 Adultery or fornication committed after a contract, being detected before marriage, gives just occasion to the innocent party to dissolve that contract.[490] In the case of adultery after marriage, it is lawful for the innocent party to sue out a divorce:[491] and, after the divorce, to marry another, as if the offending party were dead.[492]

24.6 Although the corruption of man be such as is apt to study arguments unduly to put asunder those whom God has joined together in marriage: yet nothing but adultery, or such wilful desertion as can no way be remedied by the Church or civil magistrate, is cause sufficient of dissolving the bond of marriage:[493] wherein, a public and orderly course of proceeding is to be observed; and the persons concerned in it not left to their own wills and discretion, in their own case.[494]

Chapter 25 – Of the Church

25.1 The catholic or universal Church which is invisible, consists of the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one, under Christ the Head thereof; and is the spouse, the body, the fulness of Him that fills all in all.[495]

25.2 The visible Church, which is also catholic or universal under the Gospel (not confined to one nation as before under the law), consists of all those throughout the world that profess the true religion;[496] and of their children:[497] and is the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ,[498] the house and family of God,[499] out of which there is no ordinary possibility of salvation.[500]

25.3 Unto this catholic visible Church Christ has given the ministry, oracles, and ordinances of God, for the gathering and perfecting of the saints, in this life, to the end of the world: and does by His own presence and Spirit, according to His promise, make them effectual thereunto.[501]

25.4 This catholic Church has been sometimes more, sometimes less visible.[502] And particular Churches, which are members thereof, are more or less pure, according as the doctrine of the Gospel is taught and embraced, ordinances administered, and public worship performed more or less purely in them.[503]

25.5 The purest Churches under heaven are subject both to mixture and error:[504] and some have so degenerated, as to become no Churches of Christ, but synagogues of Satan.[505] Nevertheless, there shall be always a Church on earth, to worship God according to His will.[506]

25.6 There is no other head of the Church, but the Lord Jesus Christ;[507] nor can the Pope of Rome, in any sense, be head thereof; but is that Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalts himself, in the Church, against Christ and all that is called God.[508], [509]

Chapter 26 – Of the Communion of the Saints

26.1 All saints, that are united to Jesus Christ their Head by His Spirit and by faith, have fellowship with Him in His grace, sufferings, death, resurrection, and glory:[510] and, being united to one another in love, they have communion in each other’s gifts and graces,[511] and are obliged to the performance of such duties, public and private, as do conduce to their mutual good, both in the inward and outward man.[512]

26.2 Saints by profession are bound to maintain a holy fellowship and communion in the worship of God; and in performing such other spiritual services as tend to their mutual edification;[513] as also in relieving each other in outward things, according to their several abilities, and necessities. Which communion, as God offers opportunity, is to be extended unto all those who, in every place, call upon the name of the Lord Jesus.[514]

26.3 This communion which the saints have with Christ, does not make them, in any wise, partakers of the substance of His Godhead; or to be equal with Christ, in any respect: either of which to affirm is impious and blasphemous.[515] Nor does their communion one with another, as saints, take away, or infringe the title or propriety which each man has in his goods and possessions.[516]

Chapter 27 – Of the Sacraments

27.1 Sacraments are holy signs and seals of the covenant of grace,[517] immediately instituted by God,[518] to represent Christ and His benefits; and to confirm our interest in Him;[519] as also, to put a visible difference between those that belong unto the Church, and the rest of the world;[520] and solemnly to engage them to the service of God in Christ, according to His Word.[521]

27.2 There is in every sacrament a spiritual relation, or sacramental union, between the sign and the thing signified: whence it comes to pass, that the names and effects of the one are attributed to the other.[522]

27.3 The grace which is exhibited in or by the sacraments rightly used, is not conferred by any power in them; neither does the efficacy of a sacrament depend upon the piety or intention of him that does administer it:[523] but upon the work of the Spirit,[524] and the word of institution, which contains, together with a precept authorizing the use thereof, a promise of benefit to worthy receivers.[525]

27.4 There are only two sacraments ordained by Christ our Lord in the Gospel; that is to say, Baptism and the Supper of the Lord: neither of which may be dispensed by any but by a minister of the Word lawfully ordained.[526]

27.5 The sacraments of the Old Testament, in regard to the spiritual things thereby signified and exhibited, were, for substance, the same with those of the New.[527]

Chapter 28 – Of Baptism

28.1 Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ,[528] not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible Church;[529] but also, to be unto him a sign and seal of the covenant of grace,[530] of his ingrafting into Christ,[531] of regeneration,[532] of remission of sins,[533] and of his giving up unto God through Jesus Christ, to walk in the newness of life.[534] Which sacrament is, by Christ’s own appointment, to be continued in His Church until the end of the world.[535]

28.2 The outward element to be used in this sacrament is water, wherewith the party is to be baptized, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, by a minister of the Gospel, lawfully called thereunto.[536]

28.3 Dipping of the person into the water is not necessary; but Baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person.[537]

28.4 Not only those that do actually profess faith in and obedience unto Christ,[538] but also the infants of one or both believing parents, are to be baptized.[539]

28.5 Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance,[540] yet grace and salvation are not so inseparably annexed unto it, as that no person can be regenerated or saved without it;[541] or, that all that are baptized are undoubtedly regenerated.[542]

28.6 The efficacy of Baptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered;[543] yet notwithstanding, by the right use of this ordinance, the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited and conferred, by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongs unto, according to the counsel of God’s own will, in His appointed time.[544]

28.7 The sacrament of Baptism is but once to be administered unto any person.[545]

Chapter 29 – Of the Lord’s Supper

29.1 Our Lord Jesus, in the night wherein He was betrayed, instituted the sacrament of His body and blood, called the Lord’s Supper, to be observed in His Church, unto the end of the world, for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of Himself in His death; the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in Him, their further engagement in and to all duties which they owe unto Him; and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with Him, and with each other, as members of His mystical body.[546]

29.2 In this sacrament, Christ is not offered up to His Father; nor any real sacrifice made at all for remission of sins of the quick or dead;[547] but only a commemoration of that one offering up of Himself, by Himself, upon the cross, once for all: and a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same:[548] so that the Popish sacrifice of the mass (as they call it) is most abominably injurious to Christ’s one, only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of His elect.[549]

29.3 The Lord Jesus has, in this ordinance, appointed His ministers to declare His word of institution to the people; to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to a holy use; and to take and break the bread, to take the cup, and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants;[550] but to none who are not then present in the congregation.[551]

29.4 Private masses, or receiving this sacrament by a priest or any other alone;[552] as likewise, the denial of the cup to the people,[553] worshipping the elements, the lifting them up or carrying them about for adoration, and the reserving them for any pretended religious use; are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament, and to the institution of Christ.[554]

29.5 The outward elements in this sacrament, duly set apart to the uses ordained by Christ, have such relation to Him crucified, as that, truly, yet sacramentally only, they are sometimes called by the name of the things they represent, to wit, the body and blood of Christ;[555] albeit in substance and nature they still remain truly and only bread and wine, as they were before.[556]

29.6 That doctrine which maintains a change of the substance of bread and wine into the substance of Christ’s body and blood (commonly called transubstantiation) by consecration of a priest, or by any other way, is repugnant, not to Scripture alone, but even to common sense and reason; overthrows the nature of the sacrament, and has been, and is the cause of manifold superstitions; yea, of gross idolatries.[557]

29.7 Worthy receivers outwardly partaking of the visible elements in this sacrament,[558] do then also, inwardly by faith, really and indeed, yet not carnally and corporally, but spiritually, receive and feed upon Christ crucified, and all benefits of His death: the body and blood of Christ being then, not corporally or carnally, in, with, or under the bread and wine; yet, as really, but spiritually, present to the faith of believers in that ordinance, as the elements themselves are to their outward senses.[559]

29.8 Although ignorant and wicked men receive the outward elements in this sacrament: yet they receive not the thing signified thereby, but by their unworthy coming thereunto are guilty of the body and blood of the Lord to their own damnation. Wherefore, all ignorant and ungodly persons, as they are unfit to enjoy communion with Him, so are they unworthy of the Lord’s table; and cannot, without great sin against Christ while they remain such, partake of these holy mysteries,[560] or be admitted thereunto.[561]

Chapter 30 – Of Church Censures

30.1 The Lord Jesus, as King and Head of His Church, has therein appointed a government, in the hand of Church officers, distinct from the civil magistrate.[562]

30.2 To these officers the keys of the kingdom of heaven are committed: by virtue whereof, they have power respectively to retain, and remit sins; to shut that kingdom against the impenitent, both by the Word and censures; and to open it unto penitent sinners, by the ministry of the Gospel, and by absolution from censures, as occasion shall require.[563]

30.3 Church censures are necessary, for the reclaiming and gaining of offending brethren, for deterring of others from the like offences, for purging out of that leaven which might infect the whole lump, for vindicating the honour of Christ, and the holy profession of the Gospel, and for preventing the wrath of God, which might justly fall upon the Church, if they should suffer His covenant and the seals thereof to be profaned by notorious and obstinate offenders.[564]

30.4 For the better attaining of these ends, the officers of the Church are to proceed by admonition; suspension from the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper for a season; and by excommunication from the Church; according to the nature of the crime, and demerit of the person.[565]

Chapter 31 – Of Synods and Councils

31.1 For the better government, and further edification of the Church, there ought to be such assemblies as are commonly called synods or councils.[566]

31.2 As magistrates may lawfully call a synod of ministers, and other fit persons, to consult and advise with, about matters of religion;[567] so, if magistrates be open enemies to the Church, the ministers of Christ of themselves, by virtue of their office, or they, with other fit persons upon delegation from their Churches, may meet together in such assemblies.[568], [569]

31.3 It belongs to synods and councils, ministerially to determine controversies of faith and cases of conscience; to set down rules and directions for the better ordering of the public worship of God, and government of his Church; to receive complaints in cases of maladministration, and authoritatively to determine the same: which decrees and determinations, if consonant to the Word of God, are to be received with reverence and submission; not only for their agreement with the Word, but also for the power whereby they are made, as being an ordinance of God appointed thereunto in His Word.[570]

31.4 All synods or councils, since the Apostles’ times, whether general or particular, may err; and many have erred. Therefore they are not to be made the rule of faith, or practice; but to be used as a help in both.[571]

31.5 Synods and councils are to handle, or conclude, nothing, but that which is ecclesiastical: and are not to intermeddle with civil affairs which concern the commonwealth; unless by way of humble petition, in cases extraordinary; or by way of advice, for satisfaction of conscience, if they be thereunto required by the civil magistrate.[572]

Chapter 32 – Of the State of Man After Death, and of the Resurrection of the Dead

32.1 The bodies of men, after death, return to dust and see corruption:[573] but their souls (which neither die nor sleep) having an immortal subsistence, immediately return to God who gave them:[574] the souls of the righteous, being then made perfect in holiness, are received into the highest heavens, where they behold the face of God, in light and glory, waiting for the full redemption of their bodies.[575] And the souls of the wicked are cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, reserved to the judgment of the great day.[576] Beside these two places, for souls separated from their bodies, the Scripture acknowledges none.

32.2 At the last day, such as are found alive shall not die, but be changed:[577] and all the dead shall be raised up, with the selfsame bodies, and none other, although with different qualities, which shall be united again to their souls for ever.[578]

32.3 The bodies of the unjust shall, by the power of Christ, be raised to dishonour: the bodies of the just, by His Spirit, unto honour; and be made conformable to His own glorious body.[579]

Chapter 33 – Of the Last Judgment

33.1 God has appointed a day, wherein He will judge the world in righteousness, by Jesus Christ,[580] to whom all power and judgment is given of the Father.[581] In which day, not only the apostate angels shall be judged,[582] but likewise all persons that have lived upon earth shall appear before the tribunal of Christ, to give an account of their thoughts, words, and deeds; and to receive according to what they have done in the body, whether good or evil.[583]

33.2 The end of God’s appointing this day is for the manifestation of the glory of His mercy, in the eternal salvation of the elect; and of His justice, in the damnation of the reprobate who are wicked and disobedient. For then shall the righteous go into everlasting life, and receive that fulness of joy and refreshing, which shall come from the presence of the Lord: but the wicked who know not God, and obey not the Gospel of Jesus Christ, shall be cast into eternal torments, and be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power.[584]

33.3 As Christ would have us to be certainly persuaded that there shall be a day of judgment, both to deter all men from sin, and for the greater consolation of the godly in their adversity;[585] so will He have that day unknown to men, that they may shake off all carnal security, and be always watchful, because they know not at what hour the Lord will come; and may be ever prepared to say, Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly, Amen.[586]

The Westminster Larger Catechism of 1648

Q. 1. What is the chief and highest end of man?

A. Man’s chief and highest end is to glorify God,[587] and fully to enjoy him forever.[588]

Q. 2 How does it appear that there is a God?

A. The very light of nature in man, and the works of God, declare plainly that there is a God;[589] but his word and Spirit only do sufficiently and effectually reveal him unto men for their salvation.[590]

Q. 3 What is the word of God?

A. The holy scriptures of the Old and New Testaments are the word of God,[591] the only rule of faith and obedience.[592]

Q. 4 How does it appear that the scriptures are the word of God?

A. The scriptures manifest themselves to be the word of God, by their majesty[593] and purity;[594] by the consent of all the parts,[595] and the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God;[596] by their light and power to convince and convert sinners, to comfort and build up believers unto salvation:[597] but the Spirit of God bearing witness by and with the scriptures in the heart of man, is alone able fully to persuade it that they are the very word of God.[598]

Q. 5 What do the scriptures principally teach?

A. The scriptures principally teach, what man is to believe concerning God, and what duty God requires of man.[599]

Q. 6 What do the scriptures make known of God?

A.  The scriptures make known what God is,[600] the persons in the Godhead,[601] his decrees,[602] and the execution of his decrees.[603]

Q. 7 What is God?

A. God is a Spirit,[604] in and of himself infinite in being,[605] glory,[606] blessedness,[607] and perfection;[608] all-sufficient,[609] eternal,[610] unchangeable,[611] incomprehensible,[612] everywhere present,[613] almighty,[614] knowing all things,[615] most wise,[616] most holy,[617] most just,[618] most merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth.[619]

Q. 8 Are there more Gods than one?

A. There is but one only, the living and true God.[620]

Q. 9 How many persons are there in the Godhead?

A. There be three persons in the Godhead, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and these three are one true, eternal God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory; although distinguished by their personal properties.[621]

Q. 10 What are the personal properties of the three persons in the Godhead?

A. It is proper to the Father to beget the Son,[622] and to the Son to be begotten of the Father,[623] and to the Holy Ghost to proceed from the Father and the Son from all eternity.[624]

Q. 11 How does it appear that the Son and the Holy Ghost are God equal with the Father?

A. The scriptures manifest that the Son and the Holy Ghost are God equal with the Father, ascribing unto them such names,[625] attributes,[626] works,[627] and worship,[628] as are proper to God only.

Q. 12 What are the decrees of God?

A. God’s decrees are the wise, free, and holy acts of the counsel of his will,[629] whereby, from all eternity, he has, for his own glory, unchangeably foreordained: Whatsoever comes to pass in time,[630] especially concerning angels and men.

Q. 13 What has God especially decreed concerning angels and men?

A. God, by an eternal and immutable decree, out of his mere love, for the praise of his glorious grace, to be manifested in due time, has elected some angels to glory;[631] and in Christ has chosen some men to eternal life, and the means thereof:[632] and also, according to his sovereign power, and the unsearchable counsel of his own will (whereby he extends or withholds favor as he pleases), has passed by and foreordained the rest to dishonor and wrath, to be for their sin inflicted, to the praise of the glory of his justice.[633]

Q. 14 How does God execute his decrees?

A. God executes his decrees in the works of creation and providence, according to his infallible foreknowledge, and the free and immutable counsel of his own will.[634]

Q. 15 What is the work of creation?

A. The work of creation is that wherein God did in the beginning, by the word of his power, make of nothing the world, and all things therein, for himself, within the space of six days, and all very good.[635]

Q. 16 How did God create angels?

A. God created all the angels[636] spirits,[637] immortal,[638] holy,[639] excelling in knowledge,[640] mighty in power,[641] to execute his commandments, and to praise his name,[642] yet subject to change.[643]

Q. 17 How did God create man?

A. After God had made all other creatures, he created man male and female;[644] formed the body of the man of the dust of the ground,[645] and the woman of the rib of the man,[646] endued them with living, reasonable, and immortal souls;[647] made them after his own image,[648] in knowledge,[649] righteousness, and holiness;[650] having the law of God written in their hearts,[651] and power to fulfil it,[652] and dominion over the creatures;[653] yet subject to fall.[654]

Q. 18 What are God’s works of providence?

A. God’s works of providence are his most holy,[655] wise,[656] and powerful preserving[657] and governing[658] all his creatures; ordering them, and all their actions,[659] to his own glory.[660]

Q. 19 What is God’s providence towards the angels?

A. God by his providence permitted some of the angels, wilfully and irrecoverably, to fall into sin and damnation,[661] limiting and ordering that, and all their sins, to his own glory;[662] and established the rest in holiness and happiness;[663] employing them all,[664] at his pleasure, in the administrations of his power, mercy, and justice.[665]

Q. 20 What was the providence of God toward man in the estate in which he was created?

A. The providence of God toward man in the estate in which he was created, was the placing him in paradise, appointing him to dress it, giving him liberty to eat of the fruit of the earth;[666] putting the creatures under his dominion,[667] and ordaining marriage for his help;[668] affording him communion with himself;[669] instituting the sabbath;[670] entering into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of personal, perfect, and perpetual obedience,[671] of which the tree of life was a pledge;[672] and forbidding to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, upon the pain of death.[673]

Q. 21 Did man continue in that estate wherein God at first created him?

A. Our first parents being left to the freedom of their own will, through the temptation of Satan, transgressed the commandment of God in eating the forbidden fruit; and thereby fell from the estate of innocency wherein they were created.[674]

Q. 22 Did all mankind fall in that first transgression?

A. The covenant being made with Adam as a public person, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation,[675] sinned in him, and fell with him in that first transgression.[676]

Q. 23 Into what estate did the fall bring mankind?

A. The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.[677]

Q. 24 What is sin?

A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, any law of God, given as a rule to the reasonable creature.[678]

Q. 25 Wherein consists the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?

A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam’s first sin,[679] the want of that righteousness wherein he was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that continually;[680] which is commonly called Original Sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions.[681]

Q. 26 How is original sin conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity?

A. Original sin is conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity by natural generation, so as all that proceed from them in that way are conceived and born in sin.[682]

Q. 27 What misery did the fall bring upon mankind?

A. The fall brought upon mankind the loss of communion with God,[683] his displeasure and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath,[684] bond slaves to Satan,[685] and justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that which is to come.[686]

Q. 28 What are the punishments of sin in this world?

A. The punishments of sin in this world are either inward, as blindness of mind,[687] a reprobate sense,[688] strong delusions,[689] hardness of heart,[690] horror of conscience,[691] and vile affections;[692] or outward, as the curse of God upon the creatures for our sakes,[693] and all other evils that befall us in our bodies, names, estates, relations, and employments;[694] together with death itself.[695]

Q. 29 What are the punishments of sin in the world to come?

A. The punishments of sin in the world to come, are everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God, and most grievous torments in soul and body, without intermission, in hell fire forever.[696]

Q. 30 Doth God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?

A. God does not leave all men to perish in the estate of sin and misery,[697] into which they fell by the breach of the first covenant, commonly called the Covenant of Works;[698] but of his mere love and mercy delivers his elect out of it, and brings them into an estate of salvation by the second covenant, commonly called the Covenant of Grace.[699]

Q. 31 With whom was the covenant of grace made?

A. The covenant of grace was made with Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed.[700]

Q. 32 How is the grace of God manifested in the second covenant?

A. The grace of God is manifested in the second covenant, in that he freely provides and offers to sinners a Mediator,[701] and life and salvation by him;[702] and requiring faith as the condition to interest them[703] in him, promises and gives his Holy Spirit[704] to all his elect, to work in them that faith,[705] with all other saving graces;[706] and to enable them unto all holy obedience,[707] as the evidence of the truth of their faith[708] and thankfulness to God,[709] and as the way which he has appointed them to salvation.[710]

Q. 33 Was the covenant of grace always administered after one and the same manner?

A. The covenant of grace was not always administered after the same manner, but the administrations of it under the Old Testament were different from those under the New.[711]

Q. 34 How was the covenant of grace administered under the Old Testament?

A. The covenant of grace was administered under the Old Testament, by promises,[712] prophecies,[713] sacrifices,[714] circumcision,[715] the passover,[716] and other types and ordinances, which did all fore signify Christ then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah,[717] by whom they then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation.[718]

Q. 35 How is the covenant of grace administered under the New Testament?

A. Under the New Testament, when Christ the substance was exhibited, the same covenant of grace was and still is to be administered in the preaching of the word,[719] and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism[720] and the Lord’s Supper;[721] in which grace and salvation are held forth in more fulness, evidence, and efficacy, to all nations.[722]

Q. 36 Who is the Mediator of the covenant of grace?

A. The only Mediator of the covenant of grace is the Lord Jesus Christ,[723] who, being the eternal Son of God, of one substance and equal with the Father,[724] in the fulness of time became man,[725] and so was and continues to be God and man, in two entire distinct natures, and one person, forever.[726]

Q. 37 How did Christ, being the Son of God, become man?

A. Christ the Son of God became man, by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul,[727] being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost in the womb of the virgin Mary, of her substance, and born of her,[728] yet without sin.[729]

Q. 38 Why was it requisite that the Mediator should be God?

A. It was requisite that the Mediator should be God, that he might sustain and keep the human nature from sinking under the infinite wrath of God, and the power of death;[730] give worth and efficacy to his sufferings, obedience, and intercession;[731] and to satisfy God’s justice,[732] procure his favor,[733] purchase a peculiar people,[734] give his Spirit to them,[735] conquer all their enemies,[736] and bring them to everlasting salvation.[737]

Q. 39 Why was it requisite that the Mediator should be man?

A. It was requisite that the Mediator should be man, that he might advance our nature,[738] perform obedience to the law,[739] suffer and make intercession for us in our nature,[740] have a fellow feeling of our infirmities;[741] that we might receive the adoption of sons,[742] and have comfort and access with boldness unto the throne of grace.[743]

Q. 40 Why was it requisite that the Mediator should be God and man in one person?

A. It was requisite that the Mediator, who was to reconcile God and man, should himself be both God and man, and this in one person, that the proper works of each nature might be accepted of God for us, and relied on by us,[744] as the works of the whole person.[745]

Q. 41 Why was our Mediator called Jesus?

A. Our Mediator was called Jesus, because he saves his people from their sins.[746]

Q. 42 Why was our Mediator called Christ?

A. Our Mediator was called Christ, because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost above measure;[747] and so set apart, and fully furnished with all authority and ability,[748] to execute the offices of prophet,[749] priest,[750] and king of his church,[751] in the estate both of his humiliation and exaltation.

Q. 43 How does Christ execute the office of a prophet?

A. Christ executes the office of a prophet, in his revealing to the church,[752] in all ages, by his Spirit and word,[753] in divers ways of administration,[754] the whole will of God,[755] in all things concerning their edification and salvation.[756]

Q. 44 How does Christ execute the office of a priest?

A. Christ executes the office of a priest, in his once offering himself a sacrifice without spot to God,[757] to be a reconciliation for the sins of his people;[758] and in making continual intercession for them.[759]

Q. 45 How does Christ execute the office of a king?

A. Christ executes the office of a king, in calling out of the world a people to himself,[760] and giving them officers,[761] laws,[762] and censures, by which he visibly governs them;[763] in bestowing saving grace upon his elect,[764] rewarding their obedience,[765] and correcting them for their sins,[766] preserving and supporting them under all their temptations and sufferings,[767] restraining and overcoming all their enemies,[768] and powerfully ordering all things for his own glory,[769] and their good;[770] and also in taking vengeance on the rest, who know not God, and obey not the gospel.[771]

Q. 46 What was the estate of Christ’s humiliation?

A. The estate of Christ’s humiliation was that low condition, wherein he for our sakes, emptying himself of his glory, took upon him the form of a servant, in his conception and birth, life, death, and after his death, until his resurrection.[772]

Q. 47 How did Christ humble himself in his conception and birth?

A. Christ humbled himself in his conception and birth, in that, being from all eternity the Son of God, in the bosom of the Father, he was pleased in the fulness of time to become the son of man, made of a woman of low estate, and to be born of her; with divers circumstances of more than ordinary abasement.[773]

Q. 48 How did Christ humble himself in his life?

A. Christ humbled himself in his life, by subjecting himself to the law,[774] which he perfectly fulfilled;[775] and by conflicting with the indignities of the world,[776] temptations of Satan,[777] and infirmities in his flesh, whether common to the nature of man, or particularly accompanying that his low condition.[778]

Q. 49 How did Christ humble himself in his death?

A. Christ humbled himself in his death, in that having been betrayed by Judas,[779] forsaken by his disciples,[780] scorned and rejected by the world,[781] condemned by Pilate, and tormented by his persecutors;[782] having also conflicted with the terrors of death, and the powers of darkness, felt and borne the weight of God’s wrath,[783] he laid down his life an offering for sin,[784] enduring the painful, shameful, and cursed death of the cross.[785]

Q. 50 Wherein consisted Christ’s humiliation after his death?

A. Christ’s humiliation after his death consisted in his being buried,[786] and continuing in the state of the dead, and under the power of death till the third day;[787] which has been otherwise expressed in these words, he descended into hell.

Q. 51 What was the estate of Christ’s exaltation?

A. The estate of Christ’s exaltation comprehends his resurrection,[788] ascension,[789] sitting at the right hand of the Father,[790] and his coming again to judge the world.[791]

Q. 52 How was Christ exalted in his resurrection?

A. Christ was exalted in his resurrection, in that, not having seen corruption in death (of which it was not possible for him to be held),[792] and having the very same body in which he suffered, with the essential properties thereof[793] (but without mortality, and other common infirmities belonging to this life), really united to his soul,[794] he rose again from the dead the third day by his own power;[795] whereby he declared himself to be the Son of God,[796] to have satisfied divine justice,[797] to have vanquished death, and him that had the power of it,[798] and to be Lord of quick and dead:[799] all which he did as a public person,[800] the head of his church,[801] for their justification,[802] quickening in grace,[803] support against enemies,[804] and to assure them of their resurrection from the dead at the last day.[805]

Q. 53 How was Christ exalted in his ascension?

A. Christ was exalted in his ascension, in that having after his resurrection often appeared unto and conversed with his apostles, speaking to them of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God,[806] and giving them commission to preach the gospel to all nations,[807] forty days after his resurrection, he, in our nature, and as our head,[808] triumphing over enemies,[809] visibly went up into the highest heavens, there to receive gifts for men,[810] to raise up our affections thither,[811] and to prepare a place for us,[812] where himself is, and shall continue till his second coming at the end of the world.[813]

Q. 54 How is Christ exalted in his sitting at the right hand of God?

A. Christ is exalted in his sitting at the right hand of God, in that as God-man he is advanced to the highest favor with God the Father,[814] with all fulness of joy,[815] glory,[816] and power over all things in heaven and earth;[817] and does gather and defend his church, and subdue their enemies; furnishes his ministers and people with gifts and graces,[818] and makes intercession for them.[819]

Q. 55 How does Christ make intercession?

A. Christ makes intercession, by his appearing in our nature continually before the Father in heaven,[820] in the merit of his obedience and sacrifice on earth,[821] declaring his will to have it applied to all believers;[822] answering all accusations against them,[823] and procuring for them quiet of conscience, notwithstanding daily failings,[824] access with boldness to the throne of grace,[825] and acceptance of their persons[826] and services.[827]

Q. 56 How is Christ to be exalted in his coming again to judge the world?

A. Christ is to be exalted in his coming again to judge the world, in that he, who was unjustly judged and condemned by wicked men,[828] shall come again at the last day in great power,[829] and in the full manifestation of his own glory, and of his Father’s, with all his holy angels,[830] with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God,[831] to judge the world in righteousness.[832]

Q. 57 What benefits has Christ procured by his mediation?

A. Christ, by his mediation, has procured redemption,[833] with all other benefits of the covenant of grace.[834]

Q. 58 How do we come to be made partakers of the benefits which Christ has procured?

A. We are made partakers of the benefits which Christ has procured,[835] by the application of them unto us, which is the work especially of God the Holy Ghost.[836]

Q. 59 Who are made partakers of redemption through Christ?

A. Redemption is certainly applied, and effectually communicated, to all those for whom Christ has purchased it;[837] who are in time by the Holy Ghost enabled to believe in Christ according to the gospel.[838]

Q. 60 Can they who have never heard the gospel, and so know not Jesus Christ, nor believe in him, be saved by their living according to the light of nature?

A. They who, having never heard the gospel,[839] know not Jesus Christ,[840] and believe not in him, cannot be saved,[841] be they never so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature,[842] or the laws of that religion which they profess;[843] neither is there salvation in any other, but in Christ alone,[844] who is the Savior only of his body the church.[845]

Q. 61 Are all they saved who hear the gospel, and live in the church?

A. All that hear the gospel, and live in the visible church, are not saved; but they only who are true members of the church invisible.[846]

Q. 62 What is the visible church?

A. The visible church is a society made up of all such as in all ages and places of the world do profess the true religion,[847] and of their children.[848]

Q. 63 What are the special privileges of the visible church?

A. The visible church has the privilege of being under God’s special care and government;[849] of being protected and preserved in all ages, not withstanding the opposition of all enemies;[850] and of enjoying the communion of saints, the ordinary means of salvation,[851] and offers of grace by Christ to all the members of it in the ministry of the gospel, testifying, that whosoever believes in him shall be saved,[852] and excluding none that will come unto him.[853]

Q. 64 What is the invisible church?

A. The invisible church is the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or shall be gathered into one under Christ the head.[854]

Q. 65 What special benefits do the members of the invisible church enjoy by Christ?

A. The members of the invisible church by Christ enjoy union and communion with him in grace and glory.[855]

Q. 66 What is that union which the elect have with Christ?

A. The union which the elect have with Christ is the work of God’s grace,[856] whereby they are spiritually and mystically, yet really and inseparably, joined to Christ as their head and husband;[857] which is done in their effectual calling.[858]

Q. 67 What is effectual calling?

A. Effectual calling is the work of God’s almighty power and grace,[859] whereby (out of his free and special love to his elect, and from nothing in them moving him thereunto)[860] he doth, in his accepted time, invite and draw them to Jesus Christ, by his word and Spirit;[861] savingly enlightening their minds,[862] renewing and powerfully determining their wills,[863] so as they (although in themselves dead in sin) are hereby made willing and able freely to answer his call, and to accept and embrace the grace offered and conveyed therein.[864]

Q. 68 Are the elect only effectually called?

A. All the elect, and they only, are effectually called;[865] although others may be, and often are, outwardly called by the ministry of the word,[866] and have some common operations of the Spirit;[867] who, for their wilful neglect and contempt of the grace offered to them, being justly left in their unbelief, do never truly come to Jesus Christ.[868]

Q. 69 What is the communion in grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ?

A. The communion in grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ, is their partaking of the virtue of his mediation, in their justification,[869] adoption,[870] sanctification, and whatever else, in this life, manifests their union with him.[871]

Q. 70 What is justification?

A. Justification is an act of God’s free grace unto sinners,[872] in which he pardons all their sins, accepts and accounts their persons righteous in his sight;[873] not for any thing wrought in them, or done by them,[874] but only for the perfect obedience and full satisfaction of Christ, by God imputed to them,[875] and received by faith alone.[876]

Q. 71 How is justification an act of God’s free grace?

A. Although Christ, by his obedience and death, did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to God’s justice in the behalf of them that are justified;[877] yet inasmuch as God accepts the satisfaction from a surety, which he might have demanded of them, and did provide this surety, his own only Son,[878] imputing his righteousness to them,[879] and requiring nothing of them for their justification but faith,[880] which also is his gift,[881] their justification is to them of free grace.[882]

Q. 72 What is justifying faith?

A. Justifying faith is a saving grace,[883] wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit[884] and word of God,[885] whereby he, being convinced of his sin and misery, and of the disability in himself and all other creatures to recover him out of his lost condition,[886] not only assents to the truth of the promise of the gospel,[887] but receives and rests upon Christ and his righteousness, therein held forth, for pardon of sin,[888] and for the accepting and accounting of his person righteous in the sight of God for salvation.[889]

Q. 73 How does faith justify a sinner in the sight of God?

A. Faith justifies a sinner in the sight of God, not because of those other graces which do always accompany it, or of good works that are the fruits of it,[890] nor as if the grace of faith, or any act thereof, were imputed to him for his justification;[891] but only as it is an instrument by which he receives and applies Christ and his righteousness.[892]

Q. 74 What is adoption?

A. Adoption is an act of the free grace of God,[893] in and for his only Son Jesus Christ,[894] whereby all those that are justified are received into the number of his children,[895] have his name put upon them,[896] the Spirit of his Son given to them,[897] are under his fatherly care and dispensations,[898] admitted to all the liberties and privileges of the sons of God, made heirs of all the promises, and fellow heirs with Christ in glory.[899]

Q. 75 What is sanctification?

A. Sanctification is a work of God’s grace, whereby they whom God has, before the foundation of the world, chosen to be holy, are in time, through the powerful operation of his Spirit[900] applying the death and resurrection of Christ unto them,[901] renewed in their whole man after the image of God;[902] having the seeds of repentance unto life, and all other saving graces, put into their hearts,[903] and those graces so stirred up, increased, and strengthened,[904] as that they more and more die unto sin, and rise unto newness of life.[905]

Q. 76 What is repentance unto life?

A. Repentance unto life is a saving grace,[906] wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit[907] and word of God,[908] whereby, out of the sight and sense, not only of the danger,[909] but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins,[910] and upon the apprehension of God’s mercy in Christ to such as are penitent,[911] he so grieves for[912] and hates his sins,[913] as that he turns from them all to God,[914] purposing and endeavoring constantly to walk with him in all the ways of new obedience.[915]

Q. 77 Wherein do justification and sanctification differ?

A. Although sanctification be inseparably joined with justification,[916] yet they differ, in that God in justification imputes the righteousness of Christ;[917] in sanctification his Spirit infuses grace, and enables to the exercise thereof;[918] in the former, sin is pardoned;[919] in the other, it is subdued:[920] the one does equally free all believers from the revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly in this life, that they never fall into condemnation;[921] the other is neither equal in all,[922] nor in this life perfect in any,[923] but growing up to perfection.[924]

Q. 78 Whence arises the imperfection of sanctification in believers?

A. The imperfection of sanctification in believers arises from the remnants of sin abiding in every part of them, and the perpetual lustings of the flesh against the spirit; whereby they are often foiled with temptations, and fall into many sins,[925] are hindered in all their spiritual services,[926] and their best works are imperfect and defiled in the sight of God.[927]

Q. 79 May not true believers, by reason of their imperfections, and the many temptations and sins they are overtaken with, fall away from the state of grace?

A. True believers, by reason of the unchangeable love of God,[928] and his decree and covenant to give them perseverance,[929] their inseparable union with Christ,[930] his continual intercession for them,[931] and the Spirit and seed of God abiding in them,[932] can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace,[933] but are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation.[934]

Q. 80 Can true believers be infallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and that they shall persevere therein unto salvation?

A. Such as truly believe in Christ, and endeavor to walk in all good conscience before him,[935] may, without extraordinary revelation, by faith grounded upon the truth of God’s promises, and by the Spirit enabling them to discern in themselves those graces to which the promises of life are made,[936] and bearing witness with their spirits that they are the children of God,[937] be infallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and shall persevere therein unto salvation.[938]

Q. 81 Are all true believers at all times assured of their present being in the estate of grace, and that they shall be saved?

A. Assurance of grace and salvation not being of the essence of faith,[939] true believers may wait long before they obtain it;[940] and, after the enjoyment thereof, may have it weakened and intermitted, through manifold distempers, sins, temptations, and desertions;[941] yet are they never left without such a presence and support of the Spirit of God as keeps them from sinking into utter despair.[942]

Q. 82 What is the communion in glory which the members of the invisible church have with Christ?

A. The communion in glory which the members of the invisible church have with Christ, is in this life,[943] immediately after death,[944] and at last perfected at the resurrection and day of judgment.[945]

Q. 83 What is the communion in glory with Christ which the members of the invisible church enjoy in this life?

A. The members of the invisible church have communicated to them in this life the firstfruits of glory with Christ, as they are members of him their head, and so in him are interested in that glory which he is fully possessed of;[946][ and, as an earnest thereof, enjoy the sense of God’s love,[947] peace of conscience, joy in the Holy Ghost, and hope of glory;[948] as, on the contrary, sense of God’s revenging wrath, horror of conscience, and a fearful expectation of judgment, are to the wicked the beginning of their torments which they shall endure after death.[949]

Q. 84 Shall all men die?

A. Death being threatened as the wages of sin,[950] it is appointed unto all men once to die;[951] for that all have sinned.[952]

Q. 85 Death, being the wages of sin, why are not the righteous delivered from death, seeing all their sins are forgiven in Christ?

A. The righteous shall be delivered from death itself at the last day, and even in death are delivered from the sting and curse of it;[953] so that, although they die, yet it is out of God’s love,[954] to free them perfectly from sin and misery,[955] and to make them capable of further communion with Christ in glory, which they then enter upon.[956]

Q. 86 What is the communion in glory with Christ, which the members of the invisible church enjoy immediately after death?

A. The communion in glory with Christ, which the members of the invisible church enjoy immediately after death, is, in that their souls are then made perfect in holiness,[957] and received into the highest heavens,[958] where they behold the face of God in light and glory,[959] waiting for the full redemption of their bodies,[960] which even in death continue united to Christ,[961] and rest in their graves as in their beds,[962] till at the last day they be again united to their souls.[963] Whereas the souls of the wicked are at their death cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, and their bodies kept in their graves, as in their prisons, till the resurrection and judgment of the great day.[964]

Q. 87 What are we to believe concerning the resurrection?

A. We are to believe, that at the last day there shall be a general resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust:[965] when they that are then found alive shall in a moment be changed; and the selfsame bodies of the dead which were laid in the grave, being then again united to their souls forever, shall be raised up by the power of Christ.[966] The bodies of the just, by the Spirit of Christ, and by virtue of his resurrection as their head, shall be raised in power, spiritual, incorruptible, and made like to his glorious body;[967] and the bodies of the wicked shall be raised up in dishonor by him, as an offended judge.[968]

Q. 88 What shall immediately follow after the resurrection?

A. Immediately after the resurrection shall follow the general and final judgment of angels and men;[969] the day and hour whereof no man knows, that all may watch and pray, and be ever ready for the coming of the Lord.[970]

Q. 89 What shall be done to the wicked at the day of judgment?

A. At the day of judgment, the wicked shall be set on Christ’s left hand,[971] and, upon clear evidence, and full conviction of their own consciences,[972] shall have the fearful but just sentence of condemnation pronounced against them;[973] and thereupon shall be cast out from the favorable presence of God, and the glorious fellowship with Christ, his saints, and all his holy angels, into hell, to be punished with unspeakable torments, both of body and soul, with the devil and his angels forever.[974]

Q. 90 What shall be done to the righteous at the day of judgment?

A. At the day of judgment, the righteous, being caught up to Christ in the clouds,[975] shall be set on his right hand, and there openly acknowledged and acquitted,[976] shall join with him in the judging of reprobate angels and men,[977] and shall be received into heaven,[978] where they shall be fully and forever freed from all sin and misery;[979] filled with inconceivable joys,[980] made perfectly holy and happy both in body and soul, in the company of innumerable saints and holy angels,[981] but especially in the immediate vision and fruition of God the Father, of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, to all eternity.[982] And this is the perfect and full communion, which the members of the invisible church shall enjoy with Christ in glory, at the resurrection and day of judgment.

Q. 91 What is the duty which God requires of man?

A. The duty which God requires of man, is obedience to his revealed will.[983]

Q. 92 What did God at first reveal unto man as the rule of his obedience?

A. The rule of obedience revealed to Adam in the estate of innocence, and to all mankind in him, besides a special command not to eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, was the moral law.[984]

Q. 93 What is the moral law?

A. The moral law is the declaration of the will of God to mankind, directing and binding everyone to personal, perfect, and perpetual conformity and obedience thereunto, in the frame and disposition of the whole man, soul and body,[985] and in performance of all those duties of holiness and righteousness which he owes to God and man:[986] promising life upon the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the breach of it.[987]

Q. 94 Is there any use of the moral law to man since the fall?

A. Although no man, since the fall, can attain to righteousness and life by the moral law;[988] yet there is great use thereof, as well common to all men, as peculiar either to the unregenerate, or the regenerate.[989]

Q. 95 Of what use is the moral law to all men?

A. The moral law is of use to all men, to inform them of the holy nature and will of God,[990] and of their duty, binding them to walk accordingly;[991] to convince them of their disability to keep it, and of the sinful pollution of their nature, hearts, and lives;[992] to humble them in the sense of their sin and misery,[993] and thereby help them to a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ,[994] and of the perfection of his obedience.[995]

Q. 96 What particular use is there of the moral law to unregenerate men?

A. The moral law is of use to unregenerate men, to awaken their consciences to flee from wrath to come,[996] and to drive them to Christ;[997] or, upon their continuance in the estate and way of sin, to leave them inexcusable,[998] and under the curse thereof.[999]

Q. 97 What special use is there of the moral law to the regenerate?

A. Although they that are regenerate, and believe in Christ, be delivered from the moral law as a covenant of works,[1000] so as thereby they are neither justified[1001] nor condemned;[1002] yet, besides the general uses thereof common to them with all men, it is of special use, to show them how much they are bound to Christ for his fulfilling it, and enduring the curse thereof in their stead, and for their good;[1003] and thereby to provoke them to more thankfulness,[1004] and to express the same in their greater care to conform themselves thereunto as the rule of their obedience.[1005]

Q. 98 Where is the moral law summarily comprehended?

A. The moral law is summarily comprehended in the ten commandments, which were delivered by the voice of God upon mount Sinai, and written by him in two tables of stone;[1006] and are recorded in the twentieth chapter of Exodus. The four first commandments containing our duty to God, and the other six our duty to man.[1007]

Q. 99 What rules are to be observed for the right understanding of the ten commandments?

A. For the right understanding of the ten commandments, these rules are to be observed: 1. That the law is perfect, and binds everyone to full conformity in the whole man unto the righteousness thereof, and unto entire obedience forever; so as to require the utmost perfection of every duty, and to forbid the least degree of every sin.[1008] 2. That it is spiritual, and so reaches the understanding, will, affections, and all other powers of the soul; as well as words, works, and gestures.[1009] 3. That one and the same thing, in divers respects, is required or forbidden in several commandments.[1010] 4. That as, where a duty is commanded, the contrary sin is forbidden;[1011] and, where a sin is forbidden, the contrary duty is commanded:[1012] so, where a promise is annexed, the contrary threatening is included;[1013] and, where a threatening is annexed, the contrary promise is included.[1014] 5. That what God forbids, is at no time to be done;[1015][8] What he commands, is always our duty;[1016] and yet every particular duty is not to be done at all times.[1017] 6. That under one sin or duty, all of the same kind are forbidden or commanded; together with all the causes, means, occasions, and appearances thereof, and provocations thereunto.[1018] 7. That what is forbidden or commanded to ourselves, we are bound, according to our places, to endeavor that it may be avoided or performed by others, according to the duty of their places.[1019] 8. That in what is commanded to others, we are bound, according to our places and callings, to be helpful to them;[1020] and to take heed of partaking with others in: What is forbidden them.[1021]

Q. 100 What special things are we to consider in the ten commandments?

A. We are to consider, in the ten commandments, the preface, the substance of the commandments themselves, and several reasons annexed to some of them, the more to enforce them.

Q. 101 What is the preface to the ten commandments?

A. The preface to the ten commandments is contained in these words, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.[1022] Wherein God manifests his sovereignty, as being JEHOVAH, the eternal, immutable, and almighty God;[1023] having his being in and of himself,[1024] and giving being to all his words[1025] and works:[1026] and that he is a God in covenant, as with Israel of old, so with all his people;[1027] who, as he brought them out of their bondage in Egypt, so he delivers us from our spiritual thraldom;[1028] and that therefore we are bound to take him for our God alone, and to keep all his commandments.[1029]

Q. 102 What is the sum of the four commandments which contain our duty to God?

A. The sum of the four commandments containing our duty to God is, to love the Lord our God with all our heart, and with all our soul, and with all our strength, and with all our mind.[1030]

Q. 103 Which is the first commandment?

A. The first commandment is, You shall have no other gods before me.[1031]

Q. 104 What are the duties required in the first commandment?

A. The duties required in the first commandment are, the knowing and acknowledging of God to be the only true God, and our God;[1032] and to worship and glorify him accordingly,[1033] by thinking,[1034] meditating,[1035] remembering,[1036] highly esteeming,[1037] honoring,[1038] adoring,[1039] choosing,[1040] loving,[1041] desiring,[1042] fearing of him;[1043] believing him;[1044] trusting,[1045] hoping,[1046] delighting,[1047] rejoicing in him;[1048] being zealous for him;[1049] calling upon him, giving all praise and thanks,[1050] and yielding all obedience and submission to him with the whole man;[1051] being careful in all things to please him,[1052] and sorrowful when in anything he is offended;[1053] and walking humbly with him.[1054]

Q. 105 What are the sins forbidden in the first commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the first commandment are, atheism, in denying or not having a God;[1055] Idolatry, in having or worshiping more gods than one, or any with or instead of the true God;[1056] the not having and avouching him for God, and our God;[1057] the omission or neglect of anything due to him, required in this commandment;[1058] ignorance,[1059] forgetfulness,[1060] misapprehensions,[1061] false opinions,[1062] unworthy and wicked thoughts of him;[1063] bold and curious searching into his secrets;[1064] all profaneness,[1065] hatred of God;[1066] self-love,[1067] self-seeking,[1068] and all other inordinate and immoderate setting of our mind, will, or affections upon other things, and taking them off from him in whole or in part;[1069] vain credulity,[1070] unbelief,[1071] heresy,[1072] misbelief,[1073] distrust,[1074] despair,[1075] incorrigibleness,[1076] and insensibleness under judgments,[1077] hardness of heart,[1078] pride,[1079] presumption,[1080] carnal security,[1081] tempting of God;[1082] using unlawful means,[1083] and trusting in lawful means;[1084] carnal delights and joys;[1085] corrupt, blind, and indiscreet zeal;[1086] lukewarmness,[1087] and deadness in the things of God;[1088] estranging ourselves, and apostatizing from God;[1089] praying, or giving any religious worship, to saints, angels, or any other creatures;[1090] all compacts and consulting with the devil,[1091] and hearkening to his suggestions;[1092] making men the lords of our faith and conscience;[1093] slighting and despising God and his commands;[1094] resisting and grieving of his Spirit,[1095] discontent and impatience at his dispensations, charging him foolishly for the evils he inflicts on us;[1096] and ascribing the praise of any good we either are, have, or can do, to fortune,[1097] idols,[1098] ourselves,[1099] or any other creature.[1100]

Q. 106 What are we specially taught by these words before me in the first commandment?

A. These words before me, or before my face, in the first commandment, teach us, that God, who sees all things, takes special notice of, and is much displeased with, the sin of having any other God: that so it may be an argument to dissuade from it, and to aggravate it as a most impudent provocation:[1101] as also to persuade us to do as in his sight,: Whatever we do in his service.[1102]

Q. 107 Which is the second commandment?

A. The second commandment is, You shalt not make unto you any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: You shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.[1103]

Q. 108 What are the duties required in the second commandment?

A. The duties required in the second commandment are, the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious worship and ordinances as God has instituted in his word;[1104] particularly prayer and thanksgiving in the name of Christ;[1105] the reading, preaching, and hearing of the word;[1106] the administration and receiving of the sacraments;[1107] church government and discipline;[1108] the ministry and maintenance thereof;[1109] religious fasting;[1110] swearing by the name of God,[1111] and vowing unto him:[1112] as also the disapproving, detesting, opposing, all false worship;[1113] and, according to each one’s place and calling, removing it, and all monuments of idolatry.[1114]

Q. 109 What are the sins forbidden in the second commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the second commandment are, all devising,[1115] counseling,[1116] commanding,[1117] using,[1118] and anywise approving, any religious worship not instituted by God himself;[1119] tolerating a false religion;[1120] the making any representation of God, of all or of any of the three persons, either inwardly in our mind, or outwardly in any kind of image or likeness of any creature whatsoever;[1121] all worshiping of it,[1122] or God in it or by it;[1123] the making of any representation of feigned deities,[1124] and all worship of them, or service belonging to them;[1125] all superstitious devices,[1126] corrupting the worship of God,[1127] adding to it, or taking from it,[1128] whether invented and taken up of ourselves,[1129] or received by tradition from others,[1130] though under the title of antiquity,[1131] custom,[1132] devotion,[1133] good intent, or any other pretense whatsoever;[1134] simony;[1135] sacrilege;[1136] all neglect,[1137] contempt,[1138] hindering,[1139] and opposing the worship and ordinances which God has appointed.[1140]

Q. 110 What are the reasons annexed to the second commandment, the more to enforce it?

A. The reasons annexed to the second commandment, the more to enforce it, contained in these words, For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments;[1141] are, besides God’s sovereignty over us, and propriety in us,[1142] his fervent zeal for his own worship,[1143] and his revengeful indignation against all false worship, as being a spiritual whoredom;[1144] accounting the breakers of this commandment such as hate him, and threatening to punish them unto divers generations;[1145] and esteeming the observers of it such as love him and keep his commandments, and promising mercy to them unto many generations.[1146]

Q. 111 Which is the third commandment?

A. The third commandment is, You shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that takes his name in vain.[1147]

Q. 112 What is required in the third commandment?

A. The third commandment requires, That the name of God, his titles, attributes,[1148] ordinances,[1149] the word,[1150] sacraments,[1151] prayer,[1152] oaths,[1153] vows,[1154] lots,[1155] his works,[1156] and whatsoever else there is whereby he makes himself known, be holily and reverently used in thought,[1157] meditation,[1158] word,[1159] and writing;[1160] by an holy profession,[1161] and Answerable conversation,[1162] to the glory of God,[1163] and the good of ourselves,[1164] and others.[1165]

Q. 113 What are the sins forbidden in the third commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the third commandment are, the not using of God’s name as is required;[1166] and the abuse of it in an ignorant,[1167] vain,[1168] irreverent, profane,[1169] superstitious,[1170] or wicked mentioning, or otherwise using his titles, attributes,[1171] ordinances,[1172] or works,[1173] by blasphemy,[1174] perjury;[1175] all sinful cursings,[1176] oaths,[1177] vows,[1178] and lots;[1179] violating of our oaths and vows, if lawful;[1180] and fulfilling them, if of things unlawful;[1181] murmuring and quarreling at,[1182] curious prying into,[1183] and misapplying of God’s decrees[1184] and providences;[1185] misinterpreting,[1186] misapplying,[1187] or any way perverting the word, or any part of it,[1188] to profane jests,[1189] curious or unprofitable Questions,[1190] vain janglings, or the maintaining of false doctrines;[1191] abusing it, the creatures, or anything contained under the name of God, to charms,[1192] or sinful lusts and practices;[1193] the maligning,[1194] scorning,[1195] reviling,[1196] or any wise opposing of God’s truth, grace, and ways;[1197] making profession of religion in hypocrisy, or for sinister ends;[1198] being ashamed of it,[1199] or a shame to it, by unconformable,[1200] unwise,[1201] unfruitful,[1202] and offensive walking,[1203] or backsliding from it.[1204]

Q. 114 What reasons are annexed to the third commandment?

A. The reasons annexed to the third commandment, in these words, The Lord thy God, and, For the Lord will not hold him guiltless that takes his name in vain,[1205] are, because he is the Lord and our God, therefore his name is not to be profaned, or any way abused by us;[1206] especially because he will be so far from acquitting and sparing the transgressors of this commandment, as that he will not suffer them to escape his righteous judgment,[1207] albeit many such escape the censures and punishments of men.[1208]

Q. 115 Which is the fourth commandment?

A. The fourth commandment is, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt you labor, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it you shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.[1209]

Q. 116 What is required in the fourth commandment?

A. The fourth commandment requires of all men the sanctifying or keeping holy to God such set times as he has appointed in his word, expressly one whole day in seven; which was the seventh from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, and the first day of the week ever since, and so to continue to the end of the world; which is the Christian sabbath,[1210] and in the New Testament called The Lord’s day.[1211]

Q. 117 How is the sabbath or the Lord’s day to be sanctified?

A. The sabbath or Lord’s day is to be sanctified by an holy resting all the day,[1212] not only from such works as are at all times sinful, but even from such worldly employments and recreations as are on other days lawful;[1213] and making it our delight to spend the whole time (except so much of it as is to betaken up in works of necessity and mercy)[1214] in the public and private exercises of God’s worship:[1215] and, to that end, we are to prepare our hearts, and with such foresight, diligence, and moderation, to dispose and seasonably dispatch our worldly business, that we may be the more free and fit for the duties of that day.[1216]

Q. 118 Why is the charge of keeping the sabbath more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors?

A. The charge of keeping the sabbath is more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors, because they are bound not only to keep it themselves, but to see that it be observed by all those that are under their charge; and because they are prone ofttimes to hinder them by employments of their own.[1217]

Q. 119 What are the sins forbidden in the fourth commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the fourth commandment are, all omissions of the duties required,[1218] all careless, negligent, and unprofitable performing of them, and being weary of them;[1219] all profaning the day by idleness, and doing that which is in itself sinful;[1220] and by all needless works, words, and thoughts, about our worldly employments and recreations.[1221]

Q. 120 What are the reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it?

A. The reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it, are taken from the equity of it, God allowing us six days of seven for our own affairs, and reserving but one for himself, in these words, Six days shalt you labor, and do all thy work:[1222] from God’s challenging a special propriety in that day, The seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God:[1223] from the example of God, who in six days made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: and from that blessing which God put upon that day, not only in sanctifying it to be a day for his service, but in ordaining it to be a means of blessing to us in our sanctifying it; Wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.[1224]

Q. 121 Why is the word Remember set in the beginning of the fourth commandment?

A. The word Remember is set in the beginning of the fourth commandment,[1225] partly, because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped in our preparation to keep it,[1226] and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments,[1227] and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of creation and redemption, which contain a short abridgment of religion;[1228] and partly, because we are very ready to forget it,[1229] for that there is less light of nature for it,[1230] and yet it restrains our natural liberty in things at other times lawful;[1231] that it comes but once in seven days, and many worldly businesses come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to prepare for it, or to sanctify it;[1232] and that Satan with his instruments much labor to blot out the glory, and even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety.[1233]

Q. 122 What is the sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man?

A. The sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man is, to love our neighbor as ourselves,[1234] and to do to others what we would have them to do to us.[1235]

Q. 123 Which is the fifth commandment?

A. The fifth commandment is, Honor thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God gives you.[1236]

Q. 124 Who are meant by father and mother in the fifth commandment?

A. By father and mother, in the fifth commandment, are meant, not only natural parents,[1237] but all superiors in age[1238] and gifts;[1239] and especially such as, by God’s ordinance, are over us in place of authority, whether in family,[1240] church,[1241] or commonwealth.[1242]

Q. 125 Why are superiors styled Father and Mother?

A. Superiors are styled Father and Mother, both to teach them in all duties toward their inferiors, like natural parents, to express love and tenderness to them, according to their several relations;[1243] and to work inferiors to a greater willingness and cheerfulness in performing their duties to their superiors, as to their parents.[1244]

Q. 126 What is the general scope of the fifth commandment?

A. The general scope of the fifth commandment is, the performance of those duties which we mutually owe in our several relations, as inferiors, superiors, or equals.[1245]

Q. 127 What is the honor that inferiors owe to their superiors?

A. The honor which inferiors owe to their superiors is, all due reverence in heart,[1246] word,[1247] and behavior;[1248] prayer and thanksgiving for them;[1249] imitation of their virtues and graces;[1250] willing obedience to their lawful commands and counsels;[1251] due submission to their corrections;[1252] fidelity to,[1253] defense[1254] and maintenance of their persons and authority, according to their several ranks, and the nature of their places;[1255] bearing with their infirmities, and covering them in love, that so they may be an honor to them and to their government.[1256]

Q. 128 What are the sins of inferiors against their superiors?

A. The sins of inferiors against their superiors are, all neglect of the duties required toward them;[1257] envying at,[1258] contempt of,[1259] and rebellion[1260] against, their persons[1261] and places,[1262] in their lawful counsels,[1263] commands, and corrections;[1264] cursing, mocking,[1265] and all such refractory and scandalous carriage, as proves a shame and dishonor to them and their government.[1266]

Q. 129 What is required of superiors towards their inferiors?

A. It is required of superiors, according to that power they receive from God, and that relation wherein they stand, to love,[1267] pray for,[1268] and bless their inferiors;[1269] to instruct,[1270] counsel, and admonish them;[1271] countenancing,[1272] commending,[1273] and rewarding such as do well;[1274] and discountenancing,[1275] reproving, and chastising such as do ill;[1276] protecting,[1277] and providing for them all things necessary for soul[1278] and body:[1279] and by grave, wise, holy, and exemplary carriage, to procure glory to God,[1280] honor to themselves,[1281] and so to preserve that authority which God has put upon them.[1282]

Q. 130 What are the sins of superiors?

A. The sins of superiors are, besides the neglect of the duties required of them,[1283] an inordinate seeking of themselves,[1284] their own glory,[1285] ease, profit, or pleasure;[1286] commanding things unlawful,[1287] or not in the power of inferiors to perform;[1288] counseling,[1289] encouraging,[1290] or favoring them in that which is evil;[1291] dissuading, discouraging, or discountenancing them in that which is good;[1292] correcting them unduly;[1293] careless exposing, or leaving them to wrong, temptation, and danger;[1294] provoking them to wrath;[1295] or any way dishonoring themselves, or lessening their authority, by an unjust, indiscreet, rigorous, or remiss behavior.[1296]

Q. 131 What are the duties of equals?

A. The duties of equals are, to regard the dignity and worth of each other,[1297] in giving honor to go one before another;[1298] and to rejoice in each other’s gifts and advancement, as their own.[1299]

Q. 132 What are the sins of equals?

A. The sins of equals are, besides the neglect of the duties required,[1300] the undervaluing of the worth,[1301] envying the gifts,[1302] grieving at the advancement of prosperity one of another;[1303] and usurping pre-eminence one over another.[1304]

Q. 133 What is the reason annexed to the fifth commandment, the more to enforce it?

A. The reason annexed to the fifth commandment, in these words, That thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God gives you,[1305] is an express promise of long life and prosperity, as far as it shall serve for God’s glory and their own good, to all such as keep this commandment.[1306]

Q. 134 Which is the sixth commandment?

A. The sixth commandment is, You shalt not kill.[1307]

Q. 135 What are the duties required in the sixth commandment?

A. The duties required in the sixth commandment are, all careful studies, and lawful endeavors, to preserve the life of ourselves[1308] and others[1309] by resisting all thoughts and purposes,[1310] subduing all passions,[1311] and avoiding all occasions,[1312] temptations,[1313] and practices, which tend to the unjust taking away the life of any;[1314] by just defense thereof against violence,[1315] patient bearing of the hand of God,[1316] quietness of mind,[1317] cheerfulness of spirit;[1318] a sober use of meat,[1319] drink,[1320] physic,[1321] sleep,[1322] labor,[1323] and recreations;[1324] by charitable thoughts,[1325] love,[1326] compassion,[1327] meekness, gentleness, kindness;[1328] peaceable,[1329] mild and courteous speeches and behavior;[1330] forbearance, readiness to be reconciled, patient bearing and forgiving of injuries, and requiting good for evil;[1331] comforting and succoring the distressed, and protecting and defending the innocent.[1332]

Q. 136 What are the sins forbidden in the sixth commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the sixth commandment are, all taking away the life of ourselves,[1333] or of others,[1334] except in case of public justice,[1335] lawful war,[1336] or necessary defense;[1337] the neglecting or withdrawing the lawful and necessary means of preservation of life;[1338] sinful anger,[1339] hatred,[1340] envy,[1341] desire of revenge;[1342] all excessive passions,[1343] distracting cares;[1344] immoderate use of meat, drink,[1345] labor,[1346] and recreations;[1347] provoking words,[1348] oppression,[1349] quarreling,[1350] striking, wounding,[1351] and whatsoever else tends to the destruction of the life of any.[1352]

Q. 137 Which is the seventh commandment?

A. The seventh commandment is, You shalt not commit adultery.[1353]

Q. 138 What are the duties required in the seventh commandment?

A. The duties required in the seventh commandment are, chastity in body, mind, affections,[1354] words,[1355] and behavior;[1356] and the preservation of it in ourselves and others;[1357] watchfulness over the eyes and all the senses;[1358] temperance,[1359] keeping of chaste company,[1360] modesty in apparel;[1361] marriage by those that have not the gift of continency,[1362] conjugal love,[1363] and cohabitation;[1364] diligent labor in our callings;[1365] shunning all occasions of uncleanness, and resisting temptations thereunto.[1366]

Q. 139 What are the sins forbidden in the seventh commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the seventh commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,[1367] are, adultery, fornication,[1368] rape, incest,[1369] sodomy, and all unnatural lusts;[1370] all unclean imaginations, thoughts, purposes, and affections;[1371] all corrupt or filthy communications, or listening thereunto;[1372] wanton looks,[1373] impudent or light behavior, immodest apparel;[1374] prohibiting of lawful,[1375] and dispensing with unlawful marriages;[1376] allowing, tolerating, keeping of stews, and resorting to them;[1377] entangling vows of single life,[1378] undue delay of marriage;[1379] having more wives or husbands than one at the same time;[1380] unjust divorce,[1381] or desertion;[1382] idleness, gluttony, drunkenness,[1383] unchaste company;[1384] lascivious songs, books, pictures, dancings, stage plays;[1385] and all other provocations to, or acts of uncleanness, either in ourselves or others.[1386]

Q. 140 Which is the eighth commandment?

A. The eighth commandment is, You shalt not steal.[1387]

Q. 141 What are the duties required in the eighth commandment?

A. The duties required in the eighth commandment are, truth, faithfulness, and justice in contracts and commerce between man and man;[1388] rendering to everyone his due;[1389] restitution of goods unlawfully detained from the right owners thereof;[1390] giving and lending freely, according to our abilities, and the necessities of others;[1391] moderation of our judgments, wills, and affections concerning worldly goods;[1392] a provident care and study to get,[1393] keep, use, and dispose these things which are necessary and convenient for the sustentation of our nature, and suitable to our condition;[1394] a lawful calling,[1395] and diligence in it;[1396] frugality;[1397] avoiding unnecessary lawsuits[1398] and suretyship, or other like engagements;[1399] and an endeavor, by all just and lawful means, to procure, preserve, and further the wealth and outward estate of others, as well as our own.[1400]

Q. 142 What are the sins forbidden in the eighth commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the eighth commandment, besides the neglect of the duties required,[1401] are, theft,[1402] robbery,[1403] man-stealing,[1404] and receiving anything that is stolen;[1405] fraudulent dealing,[1406] false weights and measures,[1407] removing land marks,[1408] injustice and unfaithfulness in contracts between man and man,[1409] or in matters of trust;[1410] oppression,[1411] extortion,[1412] usury,[1413] bribery,[1414] vexatious lawsuits,[1415] unjust enclosures and depopulations;[1416] engrossing commodities to enhance the price;[1417] unlawful callings,[1418] and all other unjust or sinful ways of taking or withholding from our neighbor what belongs to him, or of enriching ourselves;[1419] covetousness;[1420] inordinate prizing and affecting worldly goods;[1421] distrustful and distracting cares and studies in getting, keeping, and using them;[1422] envying at the prosperity of others;[1423] as likewise idleness,[1424] prodigality, wasteful gaming; and all other ways whereby we do unduly prejudice our own outward estate,[1425] and defrauding ourselves of the due use and comfort of that estate which God has given us.[1426]

Q. 143 Which is the ninth commandment?

A. The ninth commandment is, You shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.[1427]

Q. 144 What are the duties required in the ninth commandment?

A. The duties required in the ninth commandment are, the preserving and promoting of truth between man and man,[1428] and the good name of our neighbor, as well as our own;[1429] appearing and standing for the truth;[1430] and from the heart,[1431] sincerely,[1432] freely,[1433] clearly,[1434] and fully,[1435] speaking the truth, and only the truth, in matters of judgment and justice,[1436] and in all other things whatsoever;[1437] a charitable esteem of our neighbors;[1438] loving, desiring, and rejoicing in their good name;[1439] sorrowing for,[1440] and covering of their infirmities;[1441] freely acknowledging of their gifts and graces,[1442] defending their innocency;[1443] a ready receiving of a good report,[1444] and unwillingness to admit of an evil report,[1445] concerning them; discouraging talebearers,[1446] flatterers,[1447] and slanderers;[1448] love and care of our own good name, and defending it when need requires;[1449] keeping of lawful promises;[1450] studying and practicing of whatsoever things are true, honest, lovely, and of good report.[1451]

Q. 145 What are the sins forbidden in the ninth commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the ninth commandment are, all prejudicing the truth, and the good name of our neighbors, as well as our own,[1452] especially in public judicature;[1453] giving false evidence,[1454] suborning false witnesses,[1455] wittingly appearing and pleading for an evil cause, outfacing and overbearing the truth;[1456] passing unjust sentence,[1457] calling evil good, and good evil; rewarding the wicked according to the work of the righteous, and the righteous according to the work of the wicked;[1458] forgery,[1459] concealing the truth, undue silence in a just cause,[1460] and holding our peace when iniquity calls for either a reproof from ourselves,[1461] or complaint to others;[1462] speaking the truth unseasonably,[1463] or maliciously to a wrong end,[1464] or perverting it to a wrong meaning,[1465] or in doubtful and equivocal expressions, to the prejudice of truth or justice;[1466] speaking untruth,[1467] lying,[1468] slandering,[1469] backbiting,[1470] detracting,[1471] tale bearing,[1472] whispering,[1473] scoffing,[1474] reviling,[1475] rash,[1476] harsh,[1477] and partial censuring;[1478] misconstructing intentions, words, and actions;[1479] flattering,[1480] vainglorious boasting,[1481] thinking or speaking too highly or too meanly of ourselves or others;[1482] denying the gifts and graces of God;[1483] aggravating smaller faults;[1484] hiding, excusing, or extenuating of sins, when called to a free confession;[1485] unnecessary discovering of infirmities;[1486] raising false rumors,[1487] receiving and countenancing evil reports,[1488] and stopping our ears against just defense;[1489] evil suspicion;[1490] envying or grieving at the deserved credit of any,[1491] endeavoring or desiring to impair it,[1492] rejoicing in their disgrace and infamy;[1493] scornful contempt,[1494] fond admiration;[1495] breach of lawful promises;[1496] neglecting such things as are of good report,[1497] and practicing, or not avoiding ourselves, or not hindering: What we can in others, such things as procure an ill name.[1498]

Q. 146 Which is the tenth commandment?

A. The tenth commandment is, You shalt not covet thy neighbor’s house, you shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbor’s.[1499]

Q. 147 What are the duties required in the tenth commandment?

A. The duties required in the tenth commandment are, such a full contentment with our own condition,[1500] and such a charitable frame of the whole soul toward our neighbor, as that all our inward motions and affections touching him, tend unto, and further all that good which is his.[1501]

Q. 148 What are the sins forbidden in the tenth commandment?

A. The sins forbidden in the tenth commandment are, discontentment with our own estate;[1502] envying[1503] and grieving at the good of our neighbor,[1504] together with all inordinate motions and affections to anything that is his.[1505]

Q. 149 Is any man able perfectly to keep the commandments of God?

A. No man is able, either of himself,[1506] or by any grace received in this life, perfectly to keep the commandments of God;[1507] but does daily break them in thought,[1508] word, and deed.[1509]

Q. 150 Are all transgressions of the law of God equally heinous in themselves, and in the sight of God?

A. All transgressions of the law of God are not equally heinous; but some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations, are more heinous in the sight of God than others.[1510]

Q. 151 What are those aggravations that make some sins more heinous than others?

A. Sins receive their aggravations, 1. From the persons offending:[1511] if they be of riper age,[1512] greater experience or grace,[1513] eminent for profession,[1514] gifts,[1515] place,[1516] office,[1517] guides to others,[1518] and whose example is likely to be followed by others.[1519] 2. From the parties offended:[1520] if immediately against God,[1521] his attributes,[1522] and worship;[1523] against Christ, and his grace;[1524] the Holy Spirit,[1525] his witness,[1526] and workings;[1527] against superiors, men of eminency,[1528] and such as we stand especially related and engaged unto;[1529] against any of the saints,[1530] particularly weak brethren,[1531] the souls of them, or any other,[1532] and the common good of all or many.[1533] 3. From the nature and quality of the offense:[1534] if it be against the express letter of the law,[1535] break many commandments, contain in it many sins:[1536] if not only conceived in the heart, but breaks forth in words and actions,[1537] scandalize others,[1538] and admit of no reparation:[1539] if against means,[1540] mercies,[1541] judgments,[1542] light of nature,[1543] conviction of conscience,[1544] public or private admonition,[1545] censures of the church,[1546] civil punishments;[1547] and our prayers, purposes, promises,[1548] vows,[1549] covenants,[1550] and engagements to God or men:[1551] if done deliberately,[1552] wilfully,[1553] presumptuously,[1554] impudently,[1555] boastingly,[1556] maliciously,[1557] frequently,[1558] obstinately,[1559] with delight,[1560] continuance,[1561] or relapsing after repentance.[1562] 4. From circumstances of time[1563] and place:[1564] if on the Lord’s day,[1565] or other times of divine worship;[1566] or immediately before[1567] or after these,[1568] or other helps to prevent or remedy such miscarriages:[1569] if in public, or in the presence of others, who are thereby likely to be provoked or defiled.[1570]

Q. 152 What does every sin deserve at the hands of God?

A. Every sin, even the least, being against the sovereignty,[1571] goodness,[1572] and holiness of God,[1573] and against his righteous law,[1574] deserves his wrath and curse,[1575] both in this life,[1576] and that which is to come;[1577] and cannot be expiated but by the blood of Christ.[1578]

Q. 153 What does God require of us, that we may escape his wrath and curse due to us by reason of the transgression of the law?

A. That we may escape the wrath and curse of God due to us by reason of the transgression of the law, he requires of us repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ,[1579] and the diligent use of the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation.[1580]

Q. 154 What are the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of his mediation?

A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to his church the benefits of his mediation, are all his ordinances; especially the word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for their salvation.[1581]

Q. 155 How is the word made effectual to salvation?

A. The Spirit of God makes the reading, but especially the preaching of the word, an effectual means of enlightening,[1582] convincing, and humbling sinners;[1583] of driving them out of themselves, and drawing them unto Christ;[1584] of conforming them to his image,[1585] and subduing them to his will;[1586] of strengthening them against temptations and corruptions;[1587] of building them up in grace,[1588] and establishing their hearts in holiness and comfort through faith unto salvation.[1589]

Q. 156 Is the word of God to be read by all?

A. Although all are not to be permitted to read the word publicly to the congregation,[1590] yet all sorts of people are bound to read it apart by themselves,[1591] and with their families:[1592] to which end, the holy scriptures are to be translated out of the original into vulgar languages.[1593]

Q. 157 How is the word of God to be read?

A. The holy scriptures are to be read with an high and reverent esteem of them;[1594] with a firm persuasion that they are the very word of God,[1595] and that he only can enable us to understand them;[1596] with desire to know, believe, and obey the will of God revealed in them;[1597] with diligence,[1598] and attention to the matter and scope of them;[1599] with meditation,[1600] application,[1601] self-denial,[1602] and prayer.[1603]

Q. 158 By whom is the word of God to be preached?

A. The word of God is to be preached only by such as are sufficiently gifted,[1604] and also duly approved and called to that office.[1605]

Q. 159 How is the word of God to be preached by those that are called thereunto?

A. They that are called to labor in the ministry of the word, are to preach sound doctrine,[1606] diligently,[1607] in season and out of season;[1608] plainly,[1609] not in the enticing words of man’s wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit, and of power;[1610] faithfully,[1611] making known the whole counsel of God;[1612] wisely,[1613] applying themselves to the necessities and capacities of the hearers;[1614] zealously,[1615] with fervent love to God[1616] and the souls of his people;[1617] sincerely,[1618] aiming at his glory,[1619] and their conversion,[1620] edification,[1621] and salvation.[1622]

Q. 160 What is required of those that hear the word preached?

A. It is required of those that hear the word preached, that they attend upon it with diligence,[1623] preparation,[1624] and prayer;[1625] examine: What they hear by the scriptures;[1626] receive the truth with faith,[1627] love,[1628] meekness,[1629] and readiness of mind,[1630] as the word of God;[1631] meditate,[1632] and confer of it;[1633] hide it in their hearts,[1634] and bring forth the fruit of it in their lives.[1635]

Q. 161 How do the sacraments become effectual means of salvation?

A. The sacraments become effectual means of salvation, not by any power in themselves, or any virtue derived from the piety or intention of him by whom they are administered, but only by the working of the Holy Ghost, and the blessing of Christ, by whom they are instituted.[1636]

Q. 162 What is a sacrament?

A. A sacrament is a holy ordinance instituted by Christ in his church,[1637] to signify, seal, and exhibit[1638] unto those that are within the covenant of grace,[1639] the benefits of his mediation;[1640] to strengthen and increase their faith, and all other graces;[1641] to oblige them to obedience;[1642] to testify and cherish their love and communion one with another;[1643] and to distinguish them from those that are without.[1644]

Q. 163 What are the parts of a sacrament?

A. The parts of a sacrament are two; the one an outward and sensible sign, used according to Christ’s own appointment; the other an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified.[1645]

Q. 164 How many sacraments has Christ instituted in his church under the New Testament?

A. Under the New Testament Christ has instituted in his church only two sacraments, Baptism and the Lord’s supper.[1646]

Q. 165 What is Baptism?

A. Baptism is a sacrament of the New Testament, wherein Christ has ordained the washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,[1647] to be a sign and seal of ingrafting into himself,[1648] of remission of sins by his blood,[1649] and regeneration by his Spirit;[1650] of adoption,[1651] and resurrection unto everlasting life;[1652] and whereby the parties baptized are solemnly admitted into the visible church,[1653] and enter into an open and professed engagement to be wholly and only the Lord’s.[1654]

Q. 166 Unto whom is Baptism to be administered?

A. Baptism is not to be administered to any that are out of the visible church, and so strangers from the covenant of promise, till they profess their faith in Christ, and obedience to him,[1655] but infants descending from parents, either both, or but one of them, professing faith in Christ, and obedience to him, are in that respect within the covenant, and to be baptized.[1656]

Q. 167 How is our Baptism to be improved by us?

A. The needful but much neglected duty of improving our Baptism, is to be performed by us all our life long, especially in the time of temptation, and when we are present at the administration of it to others;[1657][1] by serious and thankful consideration of the nature of it, and of the ends for which Christ instituted it, the privileges and benefits conferred and sealed thereby, and our solemn vow made therein;[1658] by being humbled for our sinful defilement, our falling short of, and walking contrary to, the grace of baptism, and our engagements;[1659] by growing up to assurance of pardon of sin, and of all other blessings sealed to us in that sacrament;[1660] by drawing strength from the death and resurrection of Christ, into whom we are baptized, for the mortifying of sin, and quickening of grace;[1661] and by endeavoring to live by faith,[1662] to have our conversation in holiness and righteousness,[1663] as those that have therein given up their names to Christ;[1664] and to walk in brotherly love, as being baptized by the same Spirit into one body.[1665]

Q. 168 What is the Lord’s supper?

A. The Lord’s supper is a sacrament of the New Testament,[1666] wherein, by giving and receiving bread and wine according to the appointment of Jesus Christ, his death is showed forth; and they that worthily communicate feed upon his body and blood, to their spiritual nourishment and growth in grace;[1667] have their union and communion with him confirmed;[1668] testify and renew their thankfulness,[1669] and engagement to God,[1670] and their mutual love and fellowship each with other, as members of the same mystical body.[1671]

Q. 169 How has Christ appointed bread and wine to be given and received in the sacrament of the Lord’s supper?

A. Christ has appointed the ministers of his word, in the administration of this sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, to set apart the bread and wine from common use, by the word of institution, thanksgiving, and prayer; to take and break the bread, and to give both the bread and the wine to the communicants: who are, by the same appointment, to take and eat the bread, and to drink the wine, in thankful remembrance that the body of Christ was broken and given, and his blood shed, for them.[1672]

Q. 170 How do they that worthily communicate in the Lord’s supper feed upon the body and blood of Christ therein?

A. As the body and blood of Christ are not corporally or carnally present in, with, or under the bread and wine in the Lord’s supper,[1673] and yet are spiritually present to the faith of the receiver, no less truly and really than the elements themselves are to their outward senses;[1674] so they that worthily communicate in the sacrament of the Lord’s supper, do therein feed upon the body and blood of Christ, not after a corporal and carnal, but in a spiritual manner; yet truly and really,[1675] while by faith they receive and apply unto themselves Christ crucified, and all the benefits of his death.[1676]

Q. 171 How are they that receive the sacrament of the Lord’s supper to prepare themselves before they come unto it?

A. They that receive the sacrament of the Lord’s supper are, before they come, to prepare themselves thereunto, by examining themselves[1677] of their being in Christ,[1678] of their sins and wants;[1679] of the truth and measure of their knowledge,[1680] faith,[1681] repentance;[1682] love to God and the brethren,[1683] charity to all men,[1684] forgiving those that have done them wrong;[1685] of their desires after Christ,[1686] and of their new obedience;[1687] and by renewing the exercise of these graces,[1688] by serious meditation,[1689] and fervent prayer.[1690]

Q. 172 May one who doubts of his being in Christ, or of his due preparation, come to the Lord’s supper?

A. One who doubts of his being in Christ, or of his due preparation to the sacrament of the Lord’s supper, may have true interest in Christ, though he be not yet assured thereof;[1691] and in God’s account has it, if he be duly affected with the apprehension of the want of it,[1692] and unfeignedly desires to be found in Christ,[1693] and to depart from iniquity:[1694] in which case (because promises are made, and this sacrament is appointed, for the relief even of weak and doubting Christians)[1695] he is to bewail his unbelief,[1696] and labor to have his doubts resolved;[1697] and, so doing, he may and ought to come to the Lord’s supper, that he may be further strengthened.[1698]

Q. 173 May any who profess the faith, and desire to come to the Lord’s supper, be kept from it?

A. Such as are found to be ignorant or scandalous, notwithstanding their profession of the faith, and desire to come to the Lord’s supper, may and ought to be kept from that sacrament, by the power which Christ has left in his church,[1699] until they receive instruction, and manifest their reformation.[1700]

Q. 174 What is required of them that receive the sacrament of the Lord’s supper in the time of the administration of it?

A. It is required of them that receive the sacrament of the Lord’s supper, that, during the time of the administration of it, with all holy reverence and attention they wait upon God in that ordinance,[1701] diligently observe the sacramental elements and actions,[1702] heedfully discern the Lord’s body,[1703] and affectionately meditate on his death and sufferings,[1704] and thereby stir up themselves to a vigorous exercise of their graces;[1705] in judging themselves,[1706] and sorrowing for sin;[1707] in earnest hungering and thirsting after Christ,[1708] feeding on him by faith,[1709] receiving of his fulness,[1710] trusting in his merits,[1711] rejoicing in his love,[1712] giving thanks for his grace;[1713] in renewing of their covenant with God, and love to all the saints.[1714]

Q. 175 What is the duty of Christians, after they have received the sacrament of the Lord’s supper?

A. The duty of Christians, after they have received the sacrament of the Lord’s supper, is seriously to consider how they have behaved themselves therein, and with what success;[1715] if they find quickening and comfort, to bless God for it,[1716] beg the continuance of it,[1717] watch against relapses,[1718] fulfil their vows,[1719] and encourage themselves to a frequent attendance on that ordinance:[1720] but if they find no present benefit, more exactly to review their preparation to, and carriage at, the sacrament;[1721] in both which, if they can approve themselves to God and their own consciences, they are to wait for the fruit of it in due time:[1722] but, if they see they have failed in either, they are to be humbled,[1723] and to attend upon it afterwards with more care and diligence.[1724]

Q. 176 Wherein do the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s supper agree?

A. The sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s supper agree, in that the author of both is God;[1725] the spiritual part of both is Christ and his benefits;[1726] both are seals of the same covenant,[1727] are to be dispensed by ministers of the gospel, and by none other;[1728] and to be continued in the church of Christ until his second coming.[1729]

Q. 177 Wherein do the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s supper differ?

A. The sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s supper differ, in that baptism is to be administered but once, with water, to be a sign and seal of our regeneration and ingrafting into Christ,[1730] and that even to infants;[1731] whereas the Lord’s supper is to be administered often, in the elements of bread and wine, to represent and exhibit Christ as spiritual nourishment to the soul,[1732] and to confirm our continuance and growth in him,[1733] and that only to such as are of years and ability to examine themselves.[1734]

Q. 178 What is prayer?

A. Prayer is an offering up of our desires unto God,[1735] in the name of Christ,[1736] by the help of his Spirit;[1737] with confession of our sins,[1738] and thankful acknowledgment of his mercies.[1739]

Q. 179 Are we to pray unto God only?

A. God only being able to search the hearts,[1740] hear the requests,[1741] pardon the sins,[1742] and fulfil the desires of all;[1743] and only to be believed in,[1744] and worshiped with religious worship;[1745] prayer, which is a special part thereof,[1746] is to be made by all to him alone,[1747] and to none other.[1748]

Q. 180 What is it to pray in the name of Christ?

A. To pray in the name of Christ is, in obedience to his command, and in confidence on his promises, to ask mercy for his sake;[1749] not by bare mentioning of his name,[1750] but by drawing our encouragement to pray, and our boldness, strength, and hope of acceptance in prayer, from Christ and his mediation.[1751]

Q. 181 Why are we to pray in the name of Christ?

A. The sinfulness of man, and his distance from God by reason thereof, being so great, as that we can have no access into his presence without a mediator;[1752] and there being none in heaven or earth appointed to, or fit for, that glorious work but Christ alone,[1753] we are to pray in no other name but his only.[1754]

Q. 182 How does the Spirit help us to pray?

A. We not knowing: What to pray for as we ought, the Spirit helps our infirmities, by enabling us to understand both for whom, and: What, and: How prayer is to be made; and by working and quickening in our hearts (although not in all persons, nor at all times, in the same measure) those apprehensions, affections, and graces which are requisite for the right performance of that duty.[1755]

Q. 183 For whom are we to pray?

A. We are to pray for the whole church of Christ upon earth;[1756] for magistrates,[1757] and ministers;[1758] for ourselves,[1759] our brethren,[1760] yea, our enemies;[1761] and for all sorts of men living,[1762] or that shall live hereafter;[1763] but not for the dead,[1764] nor for those that are known to have sinned the sin unto death.[1765]

Q. 184 For what things are we to pray?

A. We are to pray for all things tending to the glory of God,[1766] the welfare of the church,[1767] our own[1768] or others good;[1769] but not for anything that is unlawful.[1770]

Q. 185 How are we to pray?

A. We are to pray with an awful apprehension of the majesty of God,[1771] and deep sense of our own unworthiness,[1772] necessities,[1773] and sins;[1774] with penitent,[1775] thankful,[1776] and enlarged hearts;[1777] with understanding,[1778] faith,[1779] sincerity,[1780] fervency,[1781] love,[1782] and perseverance,[1783] waiting upon him,[1784] with humble submission to his will.[1785]

Q. 186 What rule has God given for our direction in the duty of prayer?

A. The whole word of God is of use to direct us in the duty of prayer;[1786] but the special rule of direction is that form of prayer which our Savior Christ taught his disciples, commonly called The Lord’s prayer.[1787]

Q. 187 How is the Lord’s prayer to be used?

A. The Lord’s prayer is not only for direction, as a pattern, according to which we are to make other prayers; but may also be used as a prayer, so that it be done with understanding, faith, reverence, and other graces necessary to the right performance of the duty of prayer.[1788]

Q. 188 Of how many parts does the Lord’s prayer consist?

A. The Lord’s prayer consists of three parts; a preface, petitions, and a conclusion.

Q. 189 What does the preface of the Lord’s prayer teach us?

A. The preface of the Lord’s prayer (contained in these words, Our Father which art in heaven,)[1789] teaches us, when we pray, to draw near to God with confidence of his fatherly goodness, and our interest therein;[1790] with reverence, and all other childlike dispositions,[1791] heavenly affections,[1792] and due apprehensions of his sovereign power, majesty, and gracious condescension:[1793] as also, to pray with and for others.[1794]

Q. 190 What do we pray for in the first petition?

A. In the first petition (which is, Hallowed be thy name,)[1795] acknowledging the utter inability and indisposition that is in ourselves and all men to honor God aright,[1796] pray, that God would by his grace enable and incline us and others to know, to acknowledge, and highly to esteem him,[1797] his titles,[1798] attributes,[1799] ordinances, word,[1800] works, and whatsoever he is pleased to make himself known by;[1801] and to glorify him in thought, word,[1802] and deed:[1803] that he would prevent and remove atheism,[1804] ignorance,[1805] idolatry,[1806] profaneness,[1807] and: whatsoever is dishonorable to him;[1808] and, by his overruling providence, direct and dispose of all things to his own glory.[1809]

Q. 191 What do we pray for in the second petition?

A. In the second petition (which is, Thy kingdom come,)[1810] acknowledging ourselves and all mankind to be by nature under the dominion of sin and Satan,[1811] we pray, that the kingdom of sin and Satan may be destroyed,[1812] the gospel propagated throughout the world,[1813] the Jews called,[1814] the fulness of the Gentiles brought in;[1815] the church furnished with all gospel officers and ordinances,[1816] purged from corruption,[1817] countenanced and maintained by the civil magistrate:[1818] that the ordinances of Christ may be purely dispensed, and made effectual to the converting of those that are yet in their sins, and the confirming, comforting, and building up of those that are already converted:[1819] that Christ would rule in our hearts here,[1820] and hasten the time of his second coming, and our reigning with him forever:[1821] and that he would be pleased so to exercise the kingdom of his power in all the world, as may best conduce to these ends.[1822]

Q. 192 What do we pray for in the third petition?

A. In the third petition (which is, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven,)[1823] acknowledging, that by nature we and all men are not only utterly unable and unwilling to know and do the will of God,[1824] but prone to rebel against his word,[1825] to repine and murmur against his providence,[1826] and wholly inclined to do the will of the flesh, and of the devil:[1827] we pray, that God would by his Spirit take away from ourselves and others all blindness,[1828] weakness,[1829] indisposedness,[1830] and perverseness of heart;[1831] and by his grace make us able and willing to know, do, and submit to his will in all things,[1832] with the like humility,[1833] cheerfulness,[1834] faithfulness,[1835] diligence,[1836] zeal,[1837] sincerity,[1838] and constancy,[1839] as the angels do in heaven.[1840]

Q. 193 What do we pray for in the fourth petition?

A. In the fourth petition (which is, Give us this day our daily bread,)[1841] acknowledging, that in Adam, and by our own sin, we have forfeited our right to all the outward blessings of this life, and deserve to be wholly deprived of them by God, and to have them cursed to us in the use of them;[1842] and that neither they of themselves are able to sustain us,[1843] nor we to merit,[1844] or by our own industry to procure them;[1845] but prone to desire,[1846] get,[1847] and use them unlawfully:[1848] we pray for ourselves and others, that both they and we, waiting upon the providence of God from day to day in the use of lawful means, may, of his free gift, and as to his fatherly wisdom shall seem best, enjoy a competent portion of them;[1849] and have the same continued and blessed unto us in our holy and comfortable use of them,[1850] and contentment in them;[1851] and be kept from all things that are contrary to our temporal support and comfort.[1852]

Q. 194 What do we pray for in the fifth petition?

A. In the fifth petition (which is, Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors,)[1853] acknowledging, that we and all others are guilty both of original and actual sin, and thereby become debtors to the justice of God; and that neither we, nor any other creature, can make the least satisfaction for that debt:[1854] we pray for ourselves and others, that God of his free grace would, through the obedience and satisfaction of Christ, apprehended and applied by faith, acquit us both from the guilt and punishment of sin,[1855] accept us in his Beloved;[1856] continue his favor and grace to us,[1857] pardon our daily failings,[1858] and fill us with peace and joy, in giving us daily more and more assurance of forgiveness;[1859] which we are the rather emboldened to ask, and encouraged to expect, when we have this testimony in ourselves, that we from the heart forgive others their offenses.[1860]

Q. 195 What do we pray for in the sixth petition?

A. In the sixth petition (which is, And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil,)[1861] acknowledging, that the most wise, righteous, and gracious God, for divers holy and just ends, may so order things, that we may be assaulted, foiled, and for a time led captive by temptations;[1862] that Satan,[1863] the world,[1864] and the flesh, are ready powerfully to draw us aside, and ensnare us;[1865] and that we, even after the pardon of our sins, by reason of our corruption,[1866] weakness, and want of watchfulness,[1867] are not only subject to be tempted, and forward to expose ourselves unto temptations,[1868] but also of ourselves unable and unwilling to resist them, to recover out of them, and to improve them;[1869] and worthy to be left under the power of them:[1870] we pray, that God would so overrule the world and all in it,[1871] subdue the flesh,[1872] and restrain Satan,[1873] order all things,[1874] bestow and bless all means of grace,[1875] and quicken us to watchfulness in the use of them, that we and all his people may by his providence be kept from being tempted to sin;[1876] or, if tempted, that by his Spirit we may be powerfully supported and enabled to stand in the hour of temptation;[1877] or when fallen, raised again and recovered out of it,[1878] and have a sanctified use and improvement thereof:[1879] that our sanctification and salvation may be perfected,[1880] Satan trodden under our feet,[1881] and we fully freed from sin, temptation, and all evil, forever.[1882]

Q. 196 What does the conclusion of the Lord’s prayer teach us?[1883]

A. The conclusion of the Lord’s prayer (which is, For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever. Amen.),[1884] teaches us to enforce our petitions with arguments,[1885] which are to be taken, not from any worthiness in ourselves, or in any other creature, but from God;[1886] and with our prayers to join praises,[1887] ascribing to God alone eternal sovereignty, omnipotency, and glorious excellency;[1888] in regard whereof, as he is able and willing to help us,[1889] so we by faith are emboldened to plead with him that he would,[1890] and quietly to rely upon him, that he will fulfil our requests.[1891] And, to testify this our desire and assurance, we say, Amen.[1892]

The Westminster Shorter Catechism of 1648

Q 1. What is the chief end of man?

A. Man’s chief end is to glorify God,[1893] and to enjoy him for ever.[1894]

Q. 2 What rule has God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him?

A. The Word of God, which is contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments,[1895] is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him.[1896]

Q. 3 What do the Scriptures principally teach?

A. The Scriptures principally teach what man is to believe concerning God,[1897] and what duty God requires of man.[1898]

Q. 4 What is God?

A. God is a Spirit,[1899] infinite,[1900] eternal,[1901] and unchangeable,[1902] in his being,[1903] wisdom,[1904] power,[1905] holiness,[1906] justice,[1907] goodness,[1908] and truth.[1909]

Q. 5 Are theremore Gods than one?

A. There is but one only,[1910] the living and true God .[1911]

Q. 6 How many persons are there in the Godhead?

A. There are three persons in the Godhead; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost;[1912] and these three are one God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory.[1913]

Q. 7 What are the decrees of God?

A. The decrees of God are, his eternal purpose, according to the counsel of his will, whereby, for his own glory, he has foreordained whatsoever comes to pass.[1914]

Q. 8 How does God execute his decrees?

A. God executes his decrees in the works of creation and providence.[1915]

Q. 9 What is the work of creation?

A. The work of creation is, God’s making all things of nothing, by the word of his power,[1916] in the space of six days, and all very good.[1917]

Q. 10 How did God create man?

A. God created man male and female, after his own image [a],[1918] in knowledge,[1919] righteousness, and holiness,[1920] with dominion over the creatures.[1921]

Q. 11 What are God’s works of providence?

A. God’s works of providence are, his most holy,[1922] wise,[1923] and powerful[1924] preserving[1925] and governing[1926] all his creatures, and all their actions.[1927]

Q. 12 Whatspecial act of providence did God exercise toward man in the estate wherein he was created?

A. When God had created man, he entered into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of perfect obedience; forbidding him to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, upon pain of death.[1928]

Q. 13 Did ourfirst parents continue in the estate wherein they were created?

A. Our first parents, being left to the freedom of their own will, fell from the estate wherein they were created, by sinning against God.[1929]

Q. 14 What is sin?

A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God.[1930]

Q. 15 Whatwas the sin whereby our first parents fell from the estate wherein they were created?

A. The sin whereby our first parents fell from the estate wherein thy were created, was their eating the forbidden fruit.[1931]

Q. 16 Did allmankind fall in Adam’s first transgression?

A. The covenant being made with Adam,[1932] not only for himself, but for his posterity; all mankind, descending from him by ordinary generation, sinned in him, and fell with him, in his first transgression.[1933]

Q. 17 Into what estate did the fall bring mankind?

A. The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.[1934]

Q. 18 Wherein consiststhe sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?

A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam’s first sin,[1935] the want of original righteousness,[1936] and the corruption of his whole nature,[1937] which is commonly called original sin; together with all actual transgressions which proceed from it.[1938]

Q. 19 What is the misery of that estate whereinto man fell?

A. All mankind by their fall lost communion with God,[1939] are under his wrath[1940] and curse,[1941] and so made liable to all miseries in this life,[1942] to death[1943] itself, and to the pains of hell for ever.[1944]

Q. 20 Did God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?

A. God having, out of his mere good pleasure, from all eternity, elected some to everlasting life,[1945] did enter into a covenant of grace, to deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery, and to bring them into an estate of salvation by a Redeemer.[1946]

Q. 21 Who is the Redeemer of God’s elect?

A. The only Redeemer of God’s elect is the Lord Jesus Christ,[1947] who, being the eternal Son of God,[1948] became man,[1949] and so was, and continues to be, God and man in two distinct natures, and one person, forever.[1950]

Q. 22 How did Christ, being the Son of God, become man?

A. Christ, the Son of God, became man, by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul,[1951] being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the virgin Mary, and born of her,[1952] yet without sin.[1953]

Q. 23 What offices does Christ execute as our Redeemer?

A. Christ, as our Redeemer, executes the offices of a prophet,[1954] of a priest,[1955] and of a king,[1956] both in his estate of humiliation and exaltation.

Q. 24 How does Christ execute the office of a prophet?

A. Christ executes the office of a prophet, in revealing to us, by his Word[1957] and Spirit,[1958] the will of God for our salvation.[1959]

Q. 25 How does Christ execute the office of a priest?

A. Christ executes the office of a priest, in his once offering up of himself a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice,[1960] and reconcile us to God;[1961] and in making continual intercession for us.[1962]

Q. 26 How does Christ execute the office of a king?

A. Christ executes the office of a king, in subduing us to himself, in ruling and defending us,[1963] and in restraining and conquering all his and our enemies.[1964]

Q. 27 Wherein did Christ’s humiliation consist?

A. Christ’s humiliation consisted in his being born, and that in a low condition,[1965] made under the law,[1966] undergoing the miseries of this life,[1967] the wrath of God,[1968] and the cursed death of the cross;[1969] in being buried, and continuing under the power of death for a time.[1970]

Q. 28 Whereinconsists Christ’s exaltation?

A. Christ’s exaltation consists in his rising again from the dead on the third day,[1971] in ascending up into heaven,[1972] in sitting at the right hand[1973] of God the Father, and in coming to judge the world at the last day.[1974]

Q. 29 How are we made partakers of the redemption purchased by Christ?

A. We are made partakers of the redemption purchased by Christ, by the effectual application of it to us by his Holy Spirit.[1975]

Q. 30 How does the Spirit apply to us the redemption purchased by Christ?

A. The Spirit applies to us the redemption purchased by Christ, by working faith in us,[1976] and thereby uniting us to Christ in our effectual calling.[1977]

Q. 31 What is effectual calling?

A. Effectual calling is the work of God’s Spirit, whereby, convincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the knowledge of Christ,[1978] and renewing our wills,[1979] he does persuade and enable us to embrace Jesus Christ,[1980] freely offered to us in the gospel.[1981]

Q. 32 What benefits do they that are effectually called partake of in this life?

A. They that are effectually called do in this life partake of justification, adoption, and sanctification, and the several benefits which in this life do either accompany or flow from them.[1982]

Q. 33 What is justification?

A. Justification is an act of God’s free grace,[1983] wherein he pardons all our sins,[1984] and accepts us as righteous in his sight,[1985] only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us,[1986] and received by faith alone.[1987]

Q. 34 What is adoption?

A. Adoption is an act of God’s free grace,[1988] whereby we are received into the number, and have a right to all the privileges, of the sons of God.[1989]

Q. 35 What is sanctification?

A. Sanctification is the work of God’s free grace,[1990] whereby we are renewed in the whole man after the image of God,[1991] and are enabled more and more to die unto sin, and live unto righteousness.[1992]

Q. 36 What are the benefits which in this life do accompany or flow

from justification, adoption, and sanctification?

A. The benefits which in this life do accompany or flow from justification, adoption, and sanctification, are, assurance of God’s love,[1993] peace of conscience,[1994] joy in the Holy Ghost,[1995] increase of grace,[1996] and perseverance therein to the end.[1997]

Q. 37 What benefits do believers receive from Christ at death?

A. The souls of believers are at their death made perfect in holiness,[1998] and do immediately pass into glory;[1999] and their bodies, being still united to Christ,[2000] do rest in their graves till the resurrection.[2001]

Q. 38 What benefits do believers receive from Christ at the resurrection?

A. At the resurrection, believers being raised up in glory,[2002] shall be openly acknowledged and acquitted in the day of judgment,[2003] and made perfectly blessed in the full enjoying of God[2004] to all eternity.[2005]

Q. 39 What is the duty which God requires of man?

A. The duty which God requires of man, is obedience to his revealed will.[2006]

Q. 40 What did God at first reveal to man for the rule of his obedience?

A. The rule which God at first revealed to man for his obedience, was the moral law.[2007]

Q. 41 Wherein is the moral law summarily comprehended?

A. The moral law is summarily comprehended in the ten commandments.[2008]

Q. 42 What is the sum of the ten commandments?

A. The sum of the ten commandments is, To love the Lord our God with all our heart, with all our soul, with all our strength, and with all our mind; and our neighbour as ourselves.[2009]

Q. 43 What is the preface to the ten commandments?

A. The preface to the ten commandments is in these words, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.[2010]

Q. 44 What does the preface to the ten commandments teach us?

A. The preface to the ten commandments teaches us, That because God is the Lord, and our God, and Redeemer, therefore we are bound to keep all his commandments.[2011]

Q. 45 Which is the first commandment?

A. The first commandment is, You shalt have no other gods before me.[2012]

Q. 46 What is required in the first commandment?

A. The first commandment requires us to know and acknowledge God to be the only true God, and our God; and to worship and glorify him accordingly.[2013]

Q. 47 What is forbidden in the first commandment?

A. The first commandment forbids the denying,[2014] or not worshipping and glorifying the true God as God,[2015] and our God;[2016] and the giving of that worship and glory to any other, which is due to him alone.[2017]

Q. 48 What are we specially taught by these words, “before me,” in the first commandment?

A. These words, before me, in the first commandment teach us, that God, who sees all things, takes notice of, and is much displeased with, the sin of having any other God.[2018]

Q. 49 Which is the second commandment?

A. The second commandment is, You shalt not make unto you any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: you shalt not bow down thy self to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.[2019]

Q. 50 What is required in the second commandment?

A. The second commandment requires the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious worship and ordinances as God has appointed in his Word.[2020]

Q. 51 What is forbidden in the second commandment?

A. The second commandment forbids the worshipping of God by images,[2021] or any other way not appointed in his Word.[2022]

Q. 52 What are the reasons annexed to the second commandment?

A. The reasons annexed to the second commandment are, God’s sovereignty over us,[2023] his propriety in us,[2024] and the zeal he has to his own worship.[2025]

Q. 53 Which is the third commandment?

A. The third commandment is, You shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that takes his name in vain.[2026]

Q. 54 What is required in the third commandment?

A. The third commandment requires the holy and reverend use of God’s names, titles,[2027] attributes,[2028] ordinances,[2029] Word,[2030] and works.[2031]

Q. 55 What is forbidden in the third commandment?

A. The third commandment forbids all profaning or abusing of anything whereby God makes himself known.[2032]

Q. 56 What is the reason annexed to the third commandment?

A. The reason annexed to the third commandment is, that however the breakers of this commandment may escape punishment from men, yet the Lord our God will not suffer them to escape his righteous judgment.[2033]

Q. 57 Which is the fourth commandment?

A. The fourth commandment is, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt you labor, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it you shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.[2034]

Q. 58 What is required in the fourth commandment?

A. The fourth commandment requires the keeping holy to God such set times as he has appointed in his Word; expressly one whole day in seven, to be a holy sabbath to himself.[2035]

Q. 59 Which day of the seven has God appointed to be the weekly

sabbath?

A. From the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, God appointed the seventh day of the week to be the weekly sabbath;[2036] and the first day of the week ever since, to continue to the end of the world, which is the Christian sabbath.[2037]

Q. 60 How is the sabbath to be sanctified?

A. The sabbath is to be sanctified by a holy resting all that day, even from such worldly employments and recreations as are lawful on other days;[2038] and spending the whole time in the public and private exercises of God’s worship,[2039] except so much as is to be taken up in the works of necessity and mercy.[2040]

Q. 61 What is forbidden in the fourth commandment?

A. The fourth commandment forbids the omission or careless performance of the duties required, and the profaning the day by idleness, or doing that which is in itself sinful, or by unnecessary thoughts, words, or works, about our worldly employments or recreations.[2041]

Q. 62 What are the reasons annexed to the fourth commandment?

A. The reasons annexed to the fourth commandment are, God’s allowing us six days of the week for our own employments,[2042] his challenging a special propriety in the seventh, his own example, and his blessing the sabbath day.[2043]

Q. 63 Which is the fifth commandment?

A. The fifth commandment is, Honour thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God gives you.[2044]

Q. 64 What is required in the fifth commandment?

A. The fifth commandment requires the preserving the honor, and performing the duties, belonging to everyone in their several places and relations, as superiors, inferiors, or equals.[2045]

Q. 65 What is forbidden in the fifth commandment?

A. The fifth commandment forbids the neglecting of, or doing anything against, the honor and duty which belongs to everyone in their several places and relations.[2046]

Q. 66 What is the reason annexed to the fifth commandment?

A. The reason annexed to the fifth commandment is, a promise of long life and prosperity (as far as it shall serve for God’s glory and their own good) to all such as keep this commandment.[2047]

Q. 67 Which is the sixth commandment?

A. The sixth commandment is, You shalt not kill.[2048]

Q. 68 What is required in the sixth commandment?

A.  The sixth commandment requires all lawful endeavors to preserve our own life, and the life of others.[2049]

Q. 69 What is forbidden in the sixth commandment?

A. The sixth commandment forbids the taking away of our own life, or the life of our neighbour, unjustly, or whatsoever tends thereunto.[2050]

Q. 70 Which is the seventh commandment?

A. The seventh commandment is, You shalt not commit adultery.[2051]

Q. 71 What is required in the seventh commandment?

A. The seventh commandment requires the preservation of our own and our neighbour’s chastity, in heart, speech, and behavior.[2052]

Q. 72 What is forbidden in the seventh commandment?

A. The seventh commandment forbids all unchaste thoughts, words, and actions.[2053]

Q. 73 Which is the eighth commandment?

A. The eighth commandment is, You shalt not steal.[2054]

Q. 74 What is required in the eighth commandment?

A. The eighth commandment requires the lawful procuring and furthering the wealth and outward estate of ourselves and others.[2055]

Q. 75 What is forbidden in the eighth commandment?

A. The eighth commandment forbids whatsoever doth, or may, unjustly hinder our own, or our neighbour’s, wealth or outward estate.[2056]

Q. 76 Which is the ninth commandment?

A. The ninth commandment is, You shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.[2057]

Q. 77 What is required in the ninth commandment?

A. The ninth commandment requires the maintaining and promoting of truth between man and man, and of our own and our neighbour’s good name,[2058] especially in witness bearing.[2059]

Q. 78 What is forbidden in the ninth commandment?

A. The ninth commandment forbids whatsoever is prejudicial to truth, or injurious to our own, or our neighbour’s, good name.[2060]

Q. 79 Which is the tenth commandment?

A. The tenth commandment is, You shalt not covet thy neighbour’s house, you shalt not covet thy neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbour’s.[2061]

Q. 80 What is required in the tenth commandment?

A. The tenth commandment requires full contentment with our own condition,[2062] with a right and charitable frame of spirit toward our neighbour, and all that is his.[2063]

Q. 81 What is forbidden in the tenth commandment?

A. The tenth commandment forbids all discontentment with our own estate,[2064] envying or grieving at the good of our neighbour, and all inordinate motions and affections to anything that is his.[2065]

Q. 82 Is any man able perfectly to keep the commandments of God?

A. No mere man, since the fall, is able in this life perfectly to keep the commandments of God, but does daily break them in thought, word, and deed.[2066]

Q. 83 Are all transgressions of the law equally heinous?

A. Some sins in themselves, and by reason of several aggravations, are more heinous in the sight of God than others.[2067]

Q. 84 What does every sin deserve?

A. Every sin deserves God’s wrath and curse, both in this life, and that which is to come.[2068]

Q. 85 What does God require of us, that we may escape his wrath and curse, due to us for sin?

A. To escape the wrath and curse of God, due to us for sin, God requires of us faith in Jesus Christ, repentance unto life,[2069] with the diligent use of all the outward means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of redemption.[2070]

Q. 86 What is faith in Jesus Christ?

A. Faith in Jesus Christ is a saving grace,[2071] whereby we receive and rest upon him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel.[2072]

Q. 87 What is repentance unto life?

A. Repentance unto life is a saving grace,[2073] whereby a sinner, out of a true sense of his sin, and apprehension of the mercy of God in Christ,[2074] doth, with grief and hatred of his sin, turn from it unto God,[2075] with full purpose of, and endeavour after, new obedience.[2076]

Q. 88 What are the outward and ordinary means whereby Christ

communicates to us the benefits of redemption?

A. The outward and ordinary means whereby Christ communicates to us the benefits of redemption are, his ordinances, especially the Word, sacraments, and prayer; all which are made effectual to the elect for salvation.[2077]

Q. 89 How is the Word made effectual to salvation?

A. The Spirit of God makes the reading, but especially the preaching of the Word, an effectual means of convincing and converting sinners, and of building them up in holiness and comfort, through faith, unto salvation [a].[2078]

Q. 90 How is the Word to be read and heard, that it may become effectual to salvation?

A. That the Word may become effectual to salvation, we must attend thereunto with diligence, preparation, and prayer;[2079] receive it with faith and love, lay it up in our hearts, and practice it in our lives.[2080]

Q. 91 How do the sacraments become effectual means of salvation?

A. The sacraments become effectual means of salvation, not from any virtue in them, or in him that does administer them; but only by the blessing of Christ, and the working of his Spirit in them that by faith receive them.[2081]

Q. 92 What is a sacrament?

A. A sacrament is an holy ordinance instituted by Christ;[2082] wherein, by sensible signs, Christ, and the benefits of the new covenant, are represented, sealed, and applied to believers.[2083]

Q. 93 Which are the sacraments of the New Testament?

A. The sacraments of the New Testament are, Baptism,[2084] and the Lord’s Supper.[2085]

Q. 94 What is Baptism?

A. Baptism is a sacrament, wherein the washing with water in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost,[2086] does signify and seal our ingrafting into Christ, and partaking of the benefits of the covenant of grace, and our engagement to be the Lord’s.[2087]

Q. 95 To whom is Baptism to be administered?

A. Baptism is not to be administered to any that are out of the visible church, till they profess their faith in Christ, and obedience to him;[2088] but the infants of such as are members of the visible church are to be baptized.[2089]

Q. 96 What is the Lord’s Supper?

A. The Lord’s Supper is a sacrament, wherein, by giving and receiving bread and wine, according to Christ’s appointment, his death is showed forth;[2090] and the worthy receivers are, not after a corporal and carnal manner, but by faith, made partakers of his body and blood, with all his benefits, to their spiritual nourishment, and growth in grace.[2091]

Q. 97 What is required for the worthy receiving of the Lord’s Supper?

A. It is required of them that would worthily partake of the Lord’s Supper, that they examine themselves of their knowledge to discern the Lord’s body, of their faith to feed upon him, of their repentance, love, and new obedience; lest, coming unworthily, they eat and drink judgment to themselves.[2092]

Q. 98 What is prayer?

A. Prayer is an offering up of our desires unto God,[2093] for things agreeable to his will,[2094] in the name of Christ,[2095] with confession of our sins,[2096] and thankful acknowledgement of his mercies.[2097]

Q. 99 What rule has God given for our direction in prayer?

A. The whole Word of God is of use to direct us in prayer;[2098] but the special rule of direction is that form of prayer which Christ taught his disciples, commonly called The Lord’s Prayer.[2099]

Q. 100 What does the preface of the Lord’s Prayer teach us?

A. The preface of the Lord’s Prayer, which is, Our Father which art in heaven, teaches us to draw near to God with all holy reverence[2100] and confidence,[2101] as children to a father,[2102] able and ready to help us;[2103] and that we should pray with and for others.[2104]

Q. 101 What do we pray for in the first petition?

A. In the first petition, which is, Hallowed be thy name, we pray, that God would enable us, and others, to glorify him in all that whereby he makes himself known;[2105] and that he would dispose all things to his own glory.[2106]

Q. 102 What do we pray for in the second petition?

A. In the second petition, which is, Thy kingdom come, we pray, that Satan’s kingdom may be destroyed;[2107] and that the kingdom of grace may be advanced,[2108] ourselves and others brought into it, and kept in it;[2109] and that the kingdom of glory may be hastened.[2110]

Q. 103 What do we pray for in the third petition?

A. In the third petition, which is, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven, we pray, that God, by his grace, would make us able and willing to know, obey, and submit to his will in all things,[2111] as the angels do in heaven.[2112]

Q. 104 What do we pray for in the fourth petition?

A. In the fourth petition, which is, Give us this day our daily bread, we pray that of God’s free gift we may receive a competent portion of the good things of this life, and enjoy his blessing with them.[2113]

Q. 105 What do we pray for in the fifth petition?

A. In the fifth petition, which is, And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors, we pray that God, for Christ’s sake, would freely pardon all our sins;[2114] which we are the rather encouraged to ask, because by his grace we are enabled from the heart to forgive others.[2115]

Q. 106 What do we pray for in the sixth petition?

A. In the sixth petition, which is, And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil, we pray, that God would either keep us from being tempted to sin,[2116] or support and deliver us when we are tempted.[2117]

Q. 107 What does the conclusion of the Lord’s Prayer teach us?

A. The conclusion of the Lord’s Prayer, which is, For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever, Amen. teaches us to take our encouragement in prayer from God only,[2118] and in our prayers to praise him, ascribing kingdom, power, and glory to him;[2119] and, in testimony of our desire, and assurance to be heard, we say, Amen.[2120]


Directory for the Worship of God

Preamble

This directory seeks to avoid the extremes of being so rigorous as to be viewed as a liturgy, or so loose that it serves no purpose. There are some matters it contains that may be inconsistent with the scruples of every office bearer due to the various opinions concerning the relationship between the gifts, functions, and offices that Christ has instituted for the Church. Nevertheless, we hope that it will be received in the spirit of the directory produced by the Westminster Assembly, which wrote:

“Albeit we have not expressed in the Directory every minute particular which is or might be either laid aside or retained among us, as comely and useful in practice, yet we trust that none will be so tenacious of old customs not expressly forbidden, or so averse from good examples although new, in matters of lesser consequence, as to insist upon their liberty of retaining the one or refusing the other, because not specified in the Directory, but be studious to please others rather than themselves.”

Introduction

God has established and revealed in the Bible how to publicly worship him.[2121] To add to or subtract from what God has commanded is not acceptable, because it introduces human traditions and leads to unnecessary divisions in the Church.[2122] Therefore, the Lord’s Day public worship is to be comprised of only those elements and ordinances instituted by the Lord Jesus Christ as given through the prophets and apostles.[2123] Under the New Covenant instituted by the Lord Jesus Christ, public worship is no longer connected with the physical temple, Levitical priests, animal sacrifices, Levitical choirs, or the use of musical instruments, that were all commanded by the Lord through Moses and David in the Old Covenant.[2124] These types of ordinances have passed away, leaving the Church with the simplicity of congregational worship “in spirit and truth.”[2125]

When it comes to public worship, the Church needs to consider:

(a)    There are the elements, that is, those things which are essential to the public worship; and there are circumstances of public worship, such as where to worship and at what time, etc.

(b)    The elements are clearly expressed either by command and example in Scripture or by good and necessary consequence may be deduced from Scripture.

(c)    The circumstances are not explicitly set forth in Scripture and are decided upon at the discretion of a church session, remembering that all things should be done decently and in order.[2126]

Chapter 1 – Lord’s Day Public Worship Services

General Principles of Public Worship

1.1                    The Lord expressly calls and commands his people to draw near to him, for the sacred duty and high privilege of public worship each Lord’s Day, as it is a Sabbath of solemn rest and holy convocation to him.[2127]

1.2                    Under the Old Testament, God established a pattern of Sabbath day morning and evening worship..[2128] In the New Testament, the Lord Jesus seemingly supports this same pattern by meeting with his disciples both in the morning and the evening on the Lord’s Day.[2129] Moreover, the Lord sanctified the entire Lord’s Day to himself and in it gives his people a foretaste of their eternal enjoyment of him and his glorious Kingdom.[2130] Therefore, the congregation should ordinarily assemble for public worship in the morning and evening on the Lord’s Day. The specific times and locations of each service, as a circumstance of worship, are left to the discretion and wisdom of the session.

The Elements and Ordinances of Public Worship

1.3                    The elements and ordinances of New Testament public worship prescribed and instituted in the Scriptures are: a call to worship,[2131] prayer,[2132] reading the Word,[2133] preaching the Word,[2134] hearing the Word, congregational unaccompanied singing of Psalms,[2135] observing the sacraments,[2136] giving of tithes and offerings,[2137] the giving and taking of oaths and vows, and a benediction.[2138]

1.4                    All elements and ordinances are to be observed in a manner consistent with Christ’s prescription as revealed in the Scriptures, being a clear application of our Lord’s command, “Teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.”[2139]

Order of Worship and Leadership

1.5                    A fixed order of worship is not prescribed in the Scriptures. Nevertheless, having an order of service is a common and accepted practice.[2140] However, care ought to be taken that the elements are observed in a manner that is suitable to the capacity of those worshipping. The following is a suggested order of worship:

●        Call to Worship and Greeting

●        Prayer

●        Singing of a Psalm

●        Scripture Reading – this may be a Psalm which is then briefly expounded

●        Singing of a Psalm

●        Baptism, when occasioned

●        Prayer

●        Singing of a Psalm

●        Scripture Reading

●        Sermon

●        Prayer

●        The Lord’s Supper, when celebrated

●        Singing of a Psalm

●        Collection of Tithes and Offerings

●        Prayer

●        Benediction

1.6                    Pastors and Teachers, as ministers of the Word, shall ordinarily conduct public worship and administer the sacraments.[2141]

1.7                    Ruling elders, as ordained under-shepherds, may call the congregation to worship and give the greeting, lead the congregation in prayer,[2142] introduce the Psalms to be sung, read the Scriptures, and on occasion preach the Word and pronounce the benediction.

1.8                    When the presbytery has granted permission, men training for the Gospel ministry may lead the congregation in public worship. They are not permitted to administer the sacraments or pronounce the benediction.

1.9                    The session may occasionally request a lawfully ordained pastor from another church to conduct the public worship. However, if such supply is necessary for an extended period, permission must be granted by the presbytery.

General Points About Public Worship

1.10                Those gathering for worship are to be encouraged to do so with a joyful, reverent heart. No persons should absent themselves from the public worship of God unless they are engaged in a work of necessity or merc.[2143] Everyone must take care to be on time and if they are unable to be present when worship begins, they should join the assembly quietly.

1.11                Once worship has begun, the congregants shall give their full attention and refrain from any behaviour that might be unnecessarily distracting to others.

1.12                It is commendable for infants and young children to be in the public worship services.[2144] However, if a child becomes unsettled, a place should be provided for parents to take their child.

The Element of Public Prayer

1.13                The officer leading in public prayer must have a solemn understanding of the majesty of God and a deep sense of his own sinful unworthiness. He shall seek the help of the Holy Spirit and pray with confidence that God will hear and answer according to his perfect will.

1.14                The officer should think about the content of his prayers prior to worship, and they should be grounded in God’s Word, with special attention being given to the form which the Lord Jesus used in what is commonly called ‘The Lord’s Prayer’.[2145]

1.15                The prayer of ‘adoration and invocation’ should include adoration and thanksgiving, and seek the presence, help, and power of the Holy Spirit in the worship of God.

1.16                The prayer of ‘intercession’ should include confession, along with requests for such things as the needs of the local congregation and community, the RP Church of Canada, and her global sister churches; for the kingdom of Christ in her many branches; for our nation, the nations of the world, and those who are in places of authority and trust.[2146] Prayers for the preaching of God’s Word and in relation to the sacraments should seek the blessing of God upon the means of grace and that the worship offered would be acceptable.[2147]

1.17                The prayer of ‘thanksgiving’ should acknowledge the blessing and privilege of hearing God’s Word preached and seek the help of the Holy Spirit to bless it.[2148]

1.18                The Scriptures do not explicitly command one particular posture in prayer. They do give the examples of kneeling, bowing, sitting, standing, and lying on one’s face as postures that are signs of reverence and devotion.[2149]

The Element of the Public Reading of Holy Scripture

1.19                All the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments are to be publicly read, clearly and distinctly, using the best available common language translations of the Bible. Paraphrased versions shall not be used as an element of public worship.[2150]

1.20                The length of the passages to be read is left to the wisdom and discretion of the pastor. It is commendable to read a consecutive passage from each Testament in the services. While a goal should be to read through the whole of Scripture in the course of time, it is wise to read Scriptures which will best edify all present, for example, the Law, the Psalms, the Sermon on the Mount, etc.

The Element of the Congregational Singing of Psalms

1.21                Congregational praise is an element of public worship that is to be done according to the appointment and example of Jesus Christ and his apostles as revealed in God’s Word. Therefore, only the “psalms and hymns and spiritual songs,” from the book of Psalms in the Bible, shall be sung in worship in accordance with what God commands in the Scriptures.[2151]

1.22                The Psalms, because of their divine inspiration and inherent excellence, are to be sung with heartfelt passion and thanksgiving by the congregation, to honour and praise God. No instrumental accompaniment is to be used. Precentors may lead the congregation in its praise.

1.23                The practice of giving a brief exposition of a Psalm (or portion thereof), during worship is commended, so that the congregation may become familiar with, and sing through, the entire book of Psalms.

1.24                To facilitate congregational singing, singable versions of the Psalms are to be used. But like all translations of Scripture, this is a circumstance of public worship, and therefore no specific version is required. Nevertheless care should be taken that the text faithfully translates the original language and that the tune used for singing is appropriate.

The Element of the Preaching the Word of God

1.25                The preaching of God’s Word, being “the power of God for salvation,” should be done in such a way that the workman need not be ashamed but may save both himself and those who hear him.[2152]

1.26                The preacher shall prepare his sermon with careful study of the Scriptures and prayer, seeking constantly the help of the Holy Spirit, as he strives to declare faithfully the whole counsel of God.[2153] He should seek to read and keep abreast of the scholarship and of the social and doctrinal issues of the times.[2154]

1.27                While a pastor’s personality will affect the structure and delivery of his sermons, as a servant of Christ he is to perform his ministry according to the following principles:

(a)    He is to preach conscientiously and not negligently, labouring in the work of preaching and teaching.[2155] The sermon is an exposition and application of Scripture. The continuous exposition of a book, or a section of a book, is a commendable approach. However, topical messages are also appropriate to address the needs of the congregation and issues of the nation. These should be chosen wisely so that souls might be drawn to Christ and be conformed to his image.[2156]

(b)    He is to preach plainly, so that everyone may understand; delivering the truth not in the enticing words of man’s wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, lest the cross of Christ be emptied of its power.[2157] He ought to use or quote ecclesiastical or other human writers with discernment and care.

(c)    He is to preach faithfully, looking to the honour of Christ, the conversion, edification, and salvation of the people, and not to his own gain or glory. He should keep nothing back which may promote these holy ends, without favouritism.[2158]

(d)    He is to preach wisely, framing all his doctrines, exhortations, comforts, and especially his reproofs, in a winsome manner, with a view to the edification of the hearers.[2159]

(e)    He is to preach earnestly, as is proper to the Word of God, from the heart and to the heart.[2160]

(f)     He is to preach perceptively, taking into account the knowledge and understanding of the congregation.[2161]

(g)    He is to preach with loving affection, that the people may see that all he says comes from his godly zeal and hearty desire to do them good.[2162]

(h)    He is to preach as taught of God, persuaded in his own heart that all he teaches is the truth and that as a pastor, he will be judged with greater strictness as one who must give an account.[2163]

1.28                The congregation participates in the preaching of the Word as they listen with diligence, preparation, and prayer; receiving it with faith and love; laying it up in their hearts; and practicing it in their lives.[2164]

The Element of the Tithes and Offerings

1.29                The collection of the tithes and freewill offerings, being an element of public worship, should be taken up during public worship. Sessions have the discretion to permit the use of electronic means prior to or after worship.[2165] The collection of weekly Lord’s Day tithes and freewill offerings is an element of worship.[2166]

1.30                Special offerings for specific needs may also be collected.

The Element of the Benediction

1.31                The benediction is to be understood as a pronouncement of God’s blessing upon his people at the conclusion of the worship service. Words of benediction taken from Scripture are to be used. The Old Testament Trinitarian, high priestly benediction, “The LORD bless you and keep you; the LORD make his face to shine upon you and be gracious to you; the LORD lift up his countenance upon you and give you peace,” or the Trinitarian, apostolic benediction, “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit be with you all,” are distinctly appropriate.[2167] If, however, the pastor deems another benediction taken from Scripture more fitting for a particular occasion, he may use it.

The Ordinances of Baptism and the Lord’s Supper

1.32                A sacrament is a holy ordinance instituted by Christ, in which symbols and actions signify Christ and the benefits of the covenant of grace.[2168] Sacraments become means of grace and seals of the benefits of the covenant only by the blessing of Christ and the working of his Spirit in those who by faith receive them.

1.33                There are two sacraments of the New Covenant instituted by Christ, namely, Baptism and the Lord’s Supper. They are to be administered according to Christ’s appointment, by pastors/teachers at a time when the congregation assembles for public worship.[2169] In the case of those unable to attend public worship, the sacraments may be administered apart from a regular service. In such cases, the congregation must be represented by other members in addition to the pastor/teacher, and there should be a brief ministry of the Word of God.

The Ordinance of Baptism

1.34                Baptism is only to be administered by an ordained pastor/teacher of Christ.

The Baptism of an Adult

1.35                Adults will be baptized upon a credible profession of faith provided they have not previously been baptized in a true branch of Christ’s Church. Acceptance of a baptism of those who have had the Roman Catholic form of this ordinance will be at the discretion of the session.

1.36                Before baptism is administered, instruction should be given as to the institution, nature, and purpose of the sacrament. Suitable Scripture should be chosen for the occasion and instruction.[2170] The following (or similar) instruction shall either be explicit in the sermon or given in the form of a statement:

“Baptism is a sacrament ordained by our Lord Jesus Christ. It is a sign and seal of the inclusion of the person who is baptized in the covenant of grace. Baptism with water teaches that we and our children are conceived and born in sin. It signifies our dying to sin and our rising to newness of life by virtue of our union with Christ in his death and resurrection. It also signifies and seals to us cleansing from sin by the blood and Spirit of Christ. Since these gifts of salvation are the gracious provision of the triune God, who is pleased to claim us as his very own, we are baptized in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Baptized persons are called upon to assume the obligations of the covenant of grace; baptism summons us to renounce sin and the world, and to walk humbly with our God in devotion to his commandments.”

1.37                The person to be baptized shall give public profession of faith by means of assent to the Covenant of Church Membership (see, Official Vows 1).

1.38                The pastor shall ask the congregation to rise and respond either by verbal assent or by raising the right hand to the following vow:

“Do you, the members of this congregation, receive this person into your fellowship and promise to pray for him/her, and to help and encourage him/her in the Christian life?”

1.39                The pastor shall lead in prayer, thanking God for his grace and seeking his blessing on the ordinance of baptism, and then baptize the person, stating the person’s name and saying, “(Name), I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, one God, blessed forever, Amen.”

1.40                A member of the session may conclude with prayer, that the grace signified and sealed in baptism would be abundantly realized in the person’s life.

The Baptism of a Covenant Child

1.41                Parents, or legal guardians, of a covenant child, having received instruction on the nature and purpose of baptism, shall have their child baptized during a public worship service.

1.42                Whether baptism is by immersion, pouring, or sprinkling; whether a parent or pastor holds the infant child during the baptism; whether one or three applications of water are given when God’s triune name is pronounced, etc., are circumstantial and therefore are left to the discretion of the session.

1.43                During the service, instruction should be given to the congregation as to the institution, nature, and purpose of the sacrament. Suitable Scripture should be chosen for the occasion and instruction. The following (or similar) instruction shall either be explicit in the sermon or given in the form of a statement:

“Baptism is a sacrament ordained by our Lord Jesus Christ. It is a sign and seal of the inclusion of the person who is baptized in the covenant of grace. Baptism with water teaches that we and our children are conceived and born in sin. It signifies our dying to sin and our rising to newness of life by virtue of our union with Christ in his death and resurrection. It also signifies and seals to us cleansing from sin by the blood and Spirit of Christ. Since these gifts of salvation are the gracious provision of the triune God, who is pleased to claim us as his very own, we are baptized in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. Baptized persons are called upon to assume the obligations of the covenant. Baptism summons us to renounce sin and the world, and to walk humbly with our God in devotion to his commandments.”

“Although our young children do not yet understand these things, they are nevertheless to be baptized. For the promise of the covenant is made to believers and to their children, as God declared to Abraham, ‘And I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your descendants after you in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be God to you and your descendants after you’.[2171] Under the New Covenant, no less than in the Old Covenant, the children of believers, have, by virtue of their birth, an interest in the covenant and a right to the seal of it. The covenant of grace is the same in substance in both the Old and the New Covenants, and baptism has replaced circumcision as the seal of that covenant.[2172] Our Saviour admitted little children into his presence, embracing them and blessing them, and saying, ‘Of such is the kingdom of God’.[2173] The grace signified in baptism is not tied to the moment of administration. Scripture teaches that our children are covenantally holy before their baptism.[2174] Baptism applies the promises and obligations of the covenant to our children and calls them to personal repentance and faith as they come to years of understanding.”

1.44                After the instruction, the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) are to bring the child to the front of the congregation. An unbelieving parent/legal guardian may be invited to accompany the believing parent/legal guardian in presenting the child. However, the unbelieving parent/legal guardian should not be asked to give assent to the Covenant of Baptism.

1.45                The pastor shall ask the parent(s)/legal guardian(s) to respond to the following question:

“Do you publicly renew your profession of faith in Christ as expressed in your vows of church membership?”

1.46                The believing parent(s)/legal guardian(s) shall then assent to the Parental/Legal Guardian Baptismal Vows in relation to their child (see, Official Vows).

1.47                The pastor should ask the congregation to rise and respond to the following vow:

“Do you, the members of this congregation, receive this child into your fellowship and promise to pray for him/her, and to help and encourage the parents as they seek to bring him/her up in the nurture and admonition of the Lord?”

1.48                The pastor shall lead in prayer, thanking God for his grace and seeking his blessing upon the ordinance of baptism.

1.49                The pastor shall then baptize the child, stating the child’s name and saying,

“(Name), I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, one God, blessed forever, Amen.”

1.50                A member of the session may conclude with prayer, that the grace signified and sealed in baptism would be abundantly realized in the child’s life.

1.51                An accurate record should be kept in the session minutes of all persons baptized, with the date, and, in the case of a child, the names of the parent(s)/legal guardian(s), and the child’s date of birth. A Certificate of Baptism may be provided for each person baptized.

The Ordinance of the Lord’s Supper

1.52                The Lord’s Supper is to be celebrated frequently at the discretion of the session. Only an ordained pastor may administer the sacrament.[2175]

1.53                Whether believers are to take the bread into their hands and divide among themselves, or eat what is given to them; whether they are to move to be seated at tables; whether elders or deacons may help in distributing the elements; whether the communicant is to return the cup or bread to the deacon or elder or hand it to another communicant member; whether the bread is to be leavened or unleavened, and the wine to be red or white, fermented or unfermented; whether one cup is to be shared by all, or many cups derived and distributed from the one cup, etc., are not matters essential to the validity of the ordinance and are at the discretion of the session.

1.54                The visible Church is described in the Bible as both a living body, and a kingdom, to which keys are given.[2176] The session ought to make efforts to ensure that the Lord’s Supper be only served to those who are baptized and professing members in good standing in the Church of Christ.[2177]

1.55                The pastor should give instruction as to the institution, nature, and purpose of the Lord’s Supper, drawing attention to the words of institution in the Gospels and 1 Corinthians. The following (or similar) instruction shall be explicit in the sermon or given in the form of a statement:

“The Lord’s Supper is an ordinance instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ. It is to be observed until he comes again, in remembrance of the sacrifice of himself which he offered upon the cross. The physical elements of bread and wine represent the body and blood of the Saviour and are received by true believers as signs and seals of all the benefits of his sacrifice. The Supper signifies and seals remission of sins, and nourishes our souls to grow in Christ, and is a bond and pledge of our union and communion with him and with each other as members of his body, the Church. It assures us that God is faithful to fulfill the promises of the Covenant of Grace, and it calls us to renewed commitment to obey and serve the Lord in gratitude for his salvation. Christ himself is present by his Spirit in the Supper, to make it truly a means of grace to those who receive it in faith. Those who partake of the Supper do so in thankful remembrance that the body of Christ was given, and his blood shed, for them. They rejoice in hope as they anticipate the completion of their redemption in that day when they will share in the marriage supper of the Lamb.”

1.56                The pastor shall then draw attention to the words of warning and invitation found in 1 Corinthians 11:27-34. Such warning may be in the following (or similar) words:

“It is the duty of the Church to warn you that if you do not trust in the Lord Jesus Christ for your salvation, or if you are living an ungodly, disobedient life, and have not repented, you should not partake of the Lord’s Supper, lest you eat and drink condemnation to yourself. The Lord’s Supper is for repentant and believing sinners, who, after examining themselves and seeking reconciliation with their brothers and sisters, come confessing Christ as their Saviour.”

“This warning is not designed to keep the humble and contrite away from the Lord’s Supper. On the contrary, the Supper is a means of grace offered to sustain weak pilgrims on their journey through the wilderness of this life. We who come to partake of the symbols of Christ’s body and blood, come as sinners whose only hope is the grace of God in Christ. We come in a worthy manner if we recognize that in ourselves, we are unworthy sinners who need a Saviour, if we discern his body given for our sins, and if we hunger and thirst after Christ, giving thanks for his grace, trusting in his merits, feeding on him by faith, and renewing our covenant with him and his people.”

“If you are prepared to come in this way, then hear the Lord’s words of gracious invitation.”

1.57                The pastor shall take the bread and the cup, and exhibit them to the communicants, using words such as these:

“The Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread and also the cup. Following his example, and ministering in his name, I take this bread and this cup, and exhibit them to you as the sacramental symbols of the body and blood of the Lord.”

1.58                Replacing the elements, he should say the following (or similar) words:

“After the Lord Jesus had taken the bread and the cup, he blessed them. Let us pray, as we give thanks, and consecrate these elements.”

1.59                A prayer should be offered to praise God for his grace in bringing salvation; reaffirm the trust of God’s people in God’s grace and Christ’s righteousness and mediation; and plead for the Lord to grant the gracious, effectual working of his Spirit through the sacrament.[2178]

1.60                The pastor shall take the bread (or a portion of it), and break it, and say the following (or similar) words:

“After the Lord Jesus had blessed the bread, he broke it. Following his command and example, and ministering in his name, I break this bread <here the bread is broken> and give it to you his disciples, saying as he said, “Take, eat; this is my body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of me.”

1.61                The bread is then distributed to the communicants, including the elders, who receive it and partake of it. During the distribution, appropriate Scriptures may be read, or Psalms sung.

1.62                Then, the pastor shall take the cup and offer it to the congregation, and say the following (or similar) words:

‘In the same manner he also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; this do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me.” For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.’

1.63                The cup is then distributed to the communicants, including the elders, who receive it and partake of it. During the distribution, appropriate Scriptures may be read, or Psalms may be sung.

1.64                After all the communicants have partaken, a brief address may be given, emphasizing the grace of God in Jesus Christ as set forth in the sacrament, and “exhorting them to continue in the faith.”[2179]

Chapter 2 – Days of Fasting or Thanksgiving

2.1          Under the New Testament, there is no day commanded in Scripture to be kept holy but the Lord’s Day, which is the Christian Sabbath. Nevertheless, it may be appropriate to separate a day or days for public fasting or thanksgiving, as extraordinary dispensations of God’s providence give occasion.

Fasting

2.2          Special days of fasting, humiliation, and prayer are particularly appropriate when God’s judgments are evident in the land, or when corporate sin in the Church or nation provokes the Lord and invites his judgments.

2.3          In Christian fasting, the believer voluntarily abstains from food or some ordinary lawful pleasure for a season, for the purpose of seeking the will of God,[2180] strengthening for service, spiritual growth, deliverance or personal protection,[2181] overcoming temptation, expressing grief,[2182] and declaring love for God and worshiping him.[2183] It should be accompanied by prayer,[2184] meditation, self-examination, humiliation[2185] before God, confession of sin, repentance,[2186] and renewed dedication to a life of obedience.[2187]

2.4          Fasts may be partial or absolute.[2188] They may be private/family,[2189] congregational,[2190] or  national.[2191] They may be regular or occasional.[2192] They may last for a part, or for the entirety of a day or longer.[2193] They must be undertaken with a view to meeting the needs of others.[2194]

2.5          A fast day may be marked by a service of public worship. In such services, it is fitting that Psalms of penitence be sung, along with the offering of prayers of confession of sin and petitions for pardon.[2195]

2.6          If the civil government calls for a time of prayer and fasting that is in harmony with the Scriptures, sessions should encourage the people of God to pay due respect to that call.[2196]

2.7          Apart from such general occasions, there may be times when families and individuals, for their own reasons, give themselves to prayer and fasting for a season.

Thanksgiving

2.8          Blessed with the hope of salvation in Christ,[2197] Christians should always be thankful.[2198] Nevertheless, there are occasions when special seasons of corporate thanksgiving should be observed.[2199] These may be in response to a particular blessing of God in the life of the congregation, or to a call by the civil authority for a day of national thanksgiving because of God’s provision of protection or material blessings. On such occasions, suitable Psalms of thanksgiving should be used, and the preaching of God’s Word should be on the theme of gratitude to God.

Chapter 3 – Weddings and Funerals

Weddings and funerals are solemn public occasions for which the following guidelines are suggested as a help to pastors.

Weddings

3.1          Marriage is ordained by God for the welfare and happiness of humanity. God has ordained that marriage is between one man and one woman, for their joy and sanctification, for the raising of children, and for the more certain continuance of the Church. In marriage, husband and wife leave their parents and cleave to one another faithfully and are not separated except by death.[2200]

3.2          God instituted marriage at the beginning of time, and it is therefore neither a sacrament of, nor an ordinance peculiar to, the Church. It is integral to all societies and nations and is therefore rightly recognized by both Church and State. The Church should respect and abide by all reasonable and sound civil regulations that do not violate Scripture. The pastor should ensure that sound State regulations are fulfilled, while also keeping the Church’s own record of marriages.

3.3          A Christian may marry whom he/she wishes, but only in the Lord.[2201] The Lord instructs all husbands and wives to live harmoniously together and has instituted marriage as an analogy of the love between Jesus Christ and his Church.[2202]

3.4          A notice of the marriage will be given on the two Lord’s Days prior to the marriage ceremony.

3.5          If the marriage is to be legally recognized by the State, either a marriage licence must be obtained or the requirements for the publication of Banns will be undertaken according to local regulations. The form of the Banns may be as follows:

“I hereby publish the Banns of Marriage between Miss N of [City, Province], and Mr. N. of [City, Province], who are engaged to be married on the nth day of [Month, year] in [City, Province]. If any of you know cause, or just impediment, why these two persons should not be joined together in holy Marriage, you are to declare it to the elders of this congregation. This is the first [second, or third] time of publishing these Banns.”

3.6          Weddings should be held on a day of the week other than on the Lord’s Day.

3.7          In addition to prayer, singing, Scripture reading, and preaching, a wedding may include the following:

●        Declaration of purpose.

●        Declaration of the bride’s parent(s).

●        Exchange of marriage vows.

●        Exchange of rings.

3.8          Declaration of purpose – The pastor may use words such as these:

“We are gathered together here in the sight of God, and in the presence of these witnesses, to join together this man and this woman in holy matrimony, which is an honourable estate, instituted by God, which signifies to us the mystical union of Jesus Christ and his Church. God has ordained that marriage is between one man and one woman, for their joy and sanctification, for the raising of children, and for the more certain continuance of the Church. In marriage husband and wife leave their parents and cleave to one another faithfully and are not separated except by death. Jesus Christ honoured marriage by his presence and by doing his first miraculous sign at a wedding. Furthermore, he declared, “What God has joined together, let no man separate.” Marriage is therefore not to be entered into unadvisedly or lightly, but reverently, discreetly, advisedly, soberly, and in the fear of God. Into this holy estate [name of the Groom], and [name of the Bride], come now to be joined.

Do you, or any person here today, know of any reason why you may not be legally married? If you do, please speak now or forever hold your peace.”

3.9          Declaration of the bride’s parent(s) – The pastor may ask either the father or mother of the bride:

“Do you give this woman to be married to this man?”

3.10      Exchange of marriage vows – An example of vows that may be used (either in a repeat-after-me form or be responded to by the statement “I do” by both groom and bride) is as follows:

I [name of the Groom] take you [name of the Bride] to be my wedded wife and do, in the presence of God and before these witnesses, promise and covenant, to follow the example of Christ who has loved the Church and given himself for her, as I love, help, and guide you as we live together in holiness by God’s grace until he shall separate us by death.”

“I [name of the Bride] take you [name of the Groom] to be my wedded husband and do in the presence of God and before these witnesses, promise and covenant, to follow the commands of God to love, obey, and help you as we live together in holiness by God’s grace until he shall separate us by death.

3.11      Exchange of rings – If rings are used, the pastor may ask:

“What pledge do you give of your marriage vows?”

3.12      As each ring is presented to its recipient, the pastor may say:

“Give and receive this ring as a token of your marriage vows. May it be to you a symbol of the value, constancy, and purity of your wedded love, and a seal of the solemn vows you have made to one another before God.”

3.13      The pastor may then say:

“By virtue of the authority vested in me as a pastor of the Gospel, and in accordance with the laws of God and of this province, I now pronounce you husband and wife. What therefore God has joined together, let no man separate.”

3.14      The ceremony may then conclude with a prayer for God’s blessing.

Funerals

3.15      A Christian funeral should honour Jesus Christ and comfort the bereaved. Funerals can be held in whatever place and at whatever time is most suitable. The Lord’s Day should ordinarily be avoided.

3.16      As there is a great difference between the end of a believer and an unbeliever, the funeral service may need to be modified. The suggested service that follows is designed with the believer in mind. In every funeral service, the pastor is to point everyone present to Jesus Christ as the sole hope in life and in death.

3.17      There is to be no compromise with secret societies or false religions. If called to officiate where such a society desires to perform any of their rituals, the pastor should make his service distinctly separate, or else refuse to participate. Likewise, neither the pastor nor any Christian is to offer worship or veneration to any idol or ancestor.

3.18      Christians should mourn with those who mourn, yet not mourn as those without hope. Therefore, it is right and proper for Christians to gather with their families and loved ones before and after funerals, so long as their allegiance to the Lord Jesus is not compromised by any unbiblical practices, such as ancestor worship or prayers for, or to, the dead.

3.19      It is appropriate to consult the family about suitable and comforting passages of Scripture. It is also appropriate to invite other pastors of like precious faith to share in the service.

3.20      The following is a suggested order for a funeral service which may be varied:

●        Greeting

●        Prayer of Adoration and Invocation

●        Singing of a Psalm

●        Scripture reading

●        Prayer

●        Singing of a Psalm

●        Scripture Reading

●        Sermon

●        Singing of a Psalm

●        Benediction

3.21      If a graveside gathering takes place, suitable Scripture may be read and expounded, and prayer offered for those who are grieving.

Chapter 4 – Special Ordinances

4.1          The session shall seek to encourage these special ordinances towards the promotion of holiness of life and character of the congregation[2203] as a means of bringing hope, comfort, joy, and revival to the soul. They may include prayer,[2204] reading[2205] and meditating[2206] on God’s Word, and the singing of Psalms.[2207]

Personal Worship

4.2          Daily personal worship is necessary because of the tendency of the human heart to yield to temptation and depart from the Lord.[2208] It is also a means of disciplining ourselves for the purpose of godliness.[2209]

Family Worship

4.3          Daily family worship is essential to the development of family religion and is a distinguishing mark of the Christian home.[2210] While devotional material may be used to help with the understanding of God’s Word, it should not replace the reading and meditation in the Scriptures.[2211] It is the responsibility of the spiritual head of the home to ensure such worship takes place.[2212] Thanksgiving for God’s provision and prayer for God’s blessing should also be offered before meals are eaten.[2213]

Fellowship Groups

4.4          It is a blessing for the Church to gather during the week for mutual encouragement and edification.[2214] This may be a single gathering, or multiple gatherings in different locations and at different times. While devotional material may be used to help with the understanding of God’s Word, it should not replace the reading and meditation in the Scriptures.[2215]

Instruction Classes

4.5          Instruction classes for the congregation may be arranged by the session to take place on the Lord’s Day. The purpose shall be to teach the doctrines of grace and biblical truth set forth in the Westminster Confession of Faith, the Larger Catechism, and the Shorter Catechism.[2216]


Directory for Church Government

Introduction

The Lord Jesus Christ, upon whose shoulders is all government, is the only king and head of the Church, who rules it by his Word and Spirit.[2217] Church government must conform to the Scriptures and follow the specific provisions revealed in the New Testament.[2218] According to his wisdom, love, and sovereignty, Christ has prescribed what has historically been called Presbyterianism as the biblical form of church government.[2219] Although this government is not essential to the existence of the Church, it is necessary for her edification and wellbeing.[2220] Every Christian is responsible to implement and uphold it as Christ’s will for his Church.[2221]

In those circumstances of Church government not explicitly stated in Scripture, the Church must observe the general rules of God’s Word. The biblical admonition applicable to all circumstances requires that all things be done decently and in order.[2222] There are some things set forth in this Directory that are ordered by the light of nature and Christian prudence which are common to human actions and societies.[2223]

Chapter 1 – The Church

General Principles of the Church

1.1                    The universal visible Church on earth consists of all those persons in every nation who make a profession of faith in Jesus Christ and promise submission to his commandments, together with their children.[2224] This visible Church is distinguished from the invisible Church, which consists of those who have been born again and are united to Christ by a living faith.[2225]

1.2                    The ministry of the Word of God, the sacraments, and Church discipline have been given by Jesus Christ to the visible Church,[2226] to gather the nations into her and build up her members to Christian maturity until his return.[2227]

Chapter 2 – The Congregation

2.1                    A congregation consists of those who profess faith in Christ (communicant members), together with their children (baptized members), who gather together as one body in a particular locality, under the spiritual oversight of a session, for the purposes of Christian worship on the Lord’s Day,[2228] and for instruction, fellowship, work, and witness when called by the session.

2.2                    The session is required to keep a current register of communicant and baptized members of the congregation. This register is to be reviewed annually. If communicant members lack reasonable explanation for not fulfilling their Vows of Church Membership (see, Official Vows 1), the session shall seek to foster the spiritual wellbeing of the individuals and exhort them to repent.[2229]

Communicant Membership

2.3                    The communicant membership of the Church consists of all those within the congregation who have given credible evidence of a profession of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ; have been admitted by the session to the Lord’s Supper; and have been granted all the privileges and responsibilities of such membership, including participation in the voting process for Church office bearers.

2.4                    A communicant member is a person who has given his/her informed assent to the terms of the Vows of Church Membership (see, Official Vows 1).[2230]

2.5                    The degree of knowledge necessary for admission depends upon the maturity and capacity of the candidate, and that person’s opportunities for acquiring biblical knowledge.[2231]

2.6                    No one should be admitted into communicant membership who is completely ignorant of the plan of salvation, or who assumes an attitude antagonistic to the teaching, worship, or government of the Church.[2232]

2.7                    In extraordinary circumstances, such as the organization of new congregations, the presbytery may assume this function or delegate it to a temporary governing body of elders (see, Official Vows 1).[2233]

2.8                    Persons who are worshipping regularly within a congregation should, with wisdom and patience, be encouraged to seek communicant membership.

2.9                    If those being admitted to membership are unbaptized, then public baptism shall accompany and follow their affirmation of the Vows of Church Membership (see, Official Vows 1) during a public service.[2234] If the individual has no definite knowledge that he/she has received a valid Christian baptism,[2235] then it shall be administered.[2236] If those being admitted to membership have young unbaptized children living at home, these children shall be baptized following the parent’s(s’)/legal guardian’s(s’) affirmation of the Parental/Legal Guardian Baptismal Vows[2237] (see, Official Vows 2).

2.10                Due to its solemn and binding nature, Church membership cannot be resigned. It can only cease by transfer or Church censure (see, Chapter 4).

Membership Transfer

2.11                Any member moving from one congregation to another congregation within the RP Church of Canada or other true church,[2238] shall inform the session. If the member is in good standing, a letter shall be sent to the session of the congregation to which the member is transferring. This may be done electronically using the Transfer of Membership form (see, Form #2).[2239]

2.12                Any person transferring from another true church shall be admitted to the RP Church of Canada on the basis of acceptance of the Vows of Church Membership (see, Official Vows 1). If the church from which the person is transferring has concerns or grounds for censure, the person shall give full satisfaction to the session before being admitted. The judicial censures of any true church ought to be respected.[2240]

Baptized Members

2.13                Children of communicant members of the Church, in consequence of their covenant relationship, shall receive baptism, pastoral care, and instruction. However, baptized members of the Church are not to be admitted to the Lord’s Supper until they have reached years of understanding and have voluntarily professed their faith in Christ and assumed for themselves the vows and obligations of the Covenant of Church Membership. Baptized members have no vote in the congregational meetings.

2.14                Baptized children are under the oversight, care, and discipline of the session.[2241] As such, they shall receive instruction[2242] with a view to nurturing them in  biblical truth and preparing them for communicant membership.[2243] This instruction shall arise from the doctrines set forth in the Westminster Confession of FaithLarger Catechism, and Shorter Catechism. Upon becoming communicant members, they shall be granted all the privileges and responsibilities of communicant membership.[2244]

Congregational Responsibility to the Pastor

2.15                It is the responsibility of the congregation to sustain their pastor according to the terms of the contract of employment. If the congregation is unable to do so, they must immediately inform both the moderator and clerk of the presbytery. In the event of such a notification, and if the circumstances require it, the moderator and the clerk may call a special meeting of the presbytery to address the matter. It is the responsibility of the presbytery to ensure that the obligations of the contract are fulfilled.

Congregational Meetings

2.16                Congregational meetings are called and overseen by the session.

2.17                Notice of congregational meetings shall be announced on at least the two Lord’s Days prior to the date of the meeting. The purpose of the meeting shall be given as part of the notice.

2.18                As an expression of care and to encourage a congregation, an independently reviewed financial statement shall be published annually and submitted to the presbytery.

2.19                Each congregation should hold an annual meeting for the presentation and approval of the annual financial statement, as well as to fulfill any statutory requirements.

Congregational Trustees/Property

2.20                The presbytery will neither own nor hold title to any congregation’s building or property unless the trustees of the congregation transfer ownership to the presbytery.[2245]

2.21                Title to all congregational property and invested funds shall be held by the congregation through its trustees, appointed by the congregation at a congregational meeting, according to the requirement of the law of the land. The trustees shall be chosen from among the office bearers of the congregation.

2.22                When a trustee of the congregation ceases to be a member of that congregation, he shall automatically cease to be a trustee of the congregation.

2.23                If two-thirds or more of the communicant membership of any local congregation votes to withdraw from the RP Church of Canada, those leaving, as well as the presbytery, should recognize their spiritual and financial responsibility to the minority that remain. If such a situation becomes acrimonious, the presbytery should yield to the injunction laid down by the Apostle in 1 Corinthians 6:1-8.

Organizing Congregations

2.24                A group of professing Christians shall be organized as a congregation of the RP Church of Canada only under the supervision of a presbytery. Persons desiring to establish a congregation shall petition the presbytery within whose bounds they are to be organized.[2246] Congregations from other denominations may be welcomed and received upon willing adherence to the Constitution of the RP Church of Canada (see, Form #13).[2247]

2.25                In conjunction with sessions, the presbytery shall be active in exploring new works and seeking to organize congregations.[2248]

2.26                Upon receipt of such a petition or prior to an exploratory work commencing, the presbytery shall appoint a committee to visit the locality and confer with the petitioners to ascertain the merits of the proposal contained in the petition and shall then present a report of their findings to the presbytery. This report will include information on the availability of qualified and suitable men for the offices of elder and deacon, the proposed meeting place for worship, and the likely financial viability of the proposed new congregation.

2.27                If the committee recommends proceeding to the exploratory phase, then the presbytery shall appoint a provisional oversight session. These provisional elders have authority to examine and receive new members, to exercise Church discipline, to administer the sacraments, and to conduct elections for ruling elders and deacons, in preparation of the work becoming an organized congregation.[2249]

2.28                Exploratory works will be reviewed annually by the presbytery to ascertain whether they should be formally organized into a congregation.

2.29                When the presbytery grants a petition for the organization of a congregation, or for the welcoming of a congregation from another branch of the visible Church, due notice shall be given, and the presbytery shall appoint the time and place where the service of organization will occur.

2.30                At the appointed time and place, an elder shall constitute the presbytery with prayer. The steps taken to this point should be narrated followed by a service of worship which shall include a sermon.[2250] The presbytery shall determine the members that will make up the roll of the new congregation.[2251] After the roll has been determined, the communicant members of the new congregation shall give assent to and sign the Vows of Church Membership (see, Official Vows 1), which shall be preserved in the minutes of the presbytery. An elder shall offer prayer for the congregation in the name and by the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ, the king and head of the Church. The moderator of the presbytery shall then declare the congregation officially organized.

2.31                In the same meeting, the presbytery shall proceed to ordain and/or install those officers who have been previously elected by the congregation and examined and sustained by the provisional session, or in the case of a pastor, examined and sustained by the presbytery.[2252]

2.32                When deemed beneficial to the edification of its members, the session, together with the presbytery, may divide a large congregation and organize it into two or more separate congregations.[2253] Such division should ordinarily be according to the geographical location of the members.[2254]

Disjoining Congregations

2.33                If a congregation desires to disjoin from the RP Church of Canada, it must petition the presbytery through its session.

2.34                The petition must make plain that disjunction is the will of both the session and the majority of the congregation. This can only be secured by presenting minutes of the relevant congregational and session meetings, which must be in the proper form.

2.35                The presbytery will appoint a special meeting at which the petitioning session and congregation will be invited to present their reasons. If there are no disciplinary matters outstanding and if it is evident that the petition reflects the settled will of the session and of the congregation, then the presbytery shall be bound to grant the petition and proceed to disjunction.

Disorganizing Congregations

2.36                Should the situation arise where the session of a congregation is reduced to one resident elder, the presbytery will meet with the congregation with a view to ascertaining whether the congregation is viable or ought to be disorganized.[2255] If the presbytery decides that the congregation is viable, the presbytery shall appoint an elder(s) from a neighbouring congregation to form a provisional session until such time as a new elder(s) may be elected. Alternatively, a congregation may be reduced to a preaching station under the immediate supervision of the presbytery.[2256]

2.37                The presbytery may establish a temporary roll of membership when a congregation becomes disorganized. Those placed on this roll of the presbytery shall become members of another congregation within one year. If after a year they have not become members of another congregation, they shall be removed from the roll of the presbytery. Diligent effort should be made to retain members in the RP Church of Canada.[2257]

2.38                In the event that a congregation of the RP Church of Canada ceases to exist, its trustees will be encouraged to apply the assets for the furtherance of the work and witness of the RP Church of Canada.

2.39                If a congregation of the RP Church of Canada has no elders or deacons to act as trustees, the congregation may appoint communicant members as trustees.

Chapter 3 – The Office Bearers of the Church

3.1                    Christ appointed through the apostles, pastors, teachers, and rulers (who are elders with equal authority), and deacons[2258] as the permanent office bearers of his Church, for the ministry of the gospel in word and deed.[2259]

3.2                    No one may take upon himself any office in the Church.[2260] Only biblically qualified men who have been called and set apart through ordination by the Lord Jesus Christ may serve as an elder or deacon.[2261]

3.3                    The communicant membership of a congregation chooses and elects its own office bearers.[2262] Every communicant member in good standing is entitled to vote in such an election.[2263]

3.4                    When a man has been elected and accepted the office to which he has been called, he is to be ordained. Ordination is the solemn act of the Church admitting a man to office and giving him the right and title to discharge its functions.[2264] The Church shall only ordain a man when satisfied respecting his character and gifts, and only in response to a call to a particular office.[2265]

3.5                    If a congregation does not have office bearers, the presbytery may temporarily appoint provisional elders, including a pastor or teacher as pulpit supply, until the congregation is able to elect its own officers or call a pastor.[2266] The presbytery will consult the congregation before making any appointment.

Elders

3.6                    Elders alone exercise ecclesiastical authority to teach and rule.[2267] They have the responsibility and privilege of exercising immediate rule and oversight in their local congregation.[2268] They also represent their congregation in the higher courts of the Church.[2269]

3.7                    The authority of elders is only pastoral, declarative, moral, and spiritual.[2270]

3.8                    Each court of elders shall base its decisions upon Scripture and shall not presume to bind anyone’s conscience by its own authority.[2271]

3.9                    By virtue of their ordination as elders, the particular functions of pastors, teachers, and rulers in no way diminishes the parity of authority they equally share in the courts of the Church.[2272]

3.10                Scripture commands every member of a congregation to submit to the authority of the elders, who in turn are submitted to the Word of God.[2273]

The Pastor

3.11                The pastor is an elder who has special gifts from Christ for the public preaching of the Word.[2274]

3.12                In addition to the general shepherding done by all elders, the particular function of the pastor is to conduct the public worship of God, pray as the mouth of the people before God,[2275] read and preach the Word as an ambassador of Christ, administer the sacraments, and pronounce the blessing of God.

3.13                The pastor is to teach, convince, reprove, exhort, comfort, and pray for God’s people, as well as evangelize the lost. He is to apply the truth of Scripture with pastoral authority as a diligent workman approved by God.[2276] He must shepherd the flock according to the needs of families and individuals within the congregation by visiting the people, especially the sick, teaching the congregation, comforting the mourning, and nourishing and guarding the children of the congregation.[2277] Along with the other elders, he is to lead the congregation in serving Christ.[2278]

The Teacher

3.14                The teacher is an elder who has special gifts from Christ for teaching and defending sound doctrine. Like the pastor, the teacher also has the authority to teach publicly the Word, administer the sacraments, and pronounce the blessing of God.[2279]

3.15                In addition to the general shepherding done by all elders, the particular function of a teacher is to be proficient in expounding the whole system of truth revealed in the Bible. He is to teach sound doctrine, convince those who contradict it, and defend it against errors and heresies.[2280] Although the office of pastor and teacher share much in common, the pastor’s particular gift is to preach and teach by way of exhortation to the heart, while the teacher is especially gifted to explain biblical truth to the mind.

3.16                A teacher may ordinarily serve a local congregation if there is at least one other pastor serving as pastor. The teacher is particularly suited to giving instruction in a theological seminary or school.[2281]

The Ruler

3.17                The ruler is an elder who has special gifts from Christ for watching over and discipling the congregation.

3.18                In addition to the general shepherding done by all elders, the particular function of the ruling elder is to care for souls through encouragement, instruction, oversight, and governing the flock. [2282]

3.19                Ruling elders, both individually and jointly with the pastor in the session, are to lead the congregation in the service of Christ. They are to watch diligently over the people committed to their charge to protect them from errors in doctrine and morals. They should visit the people, especially the sick, counsel the congregation, comfort the mourning, and nourish and guard the children of the congregation.[2283] They should pray with and for the people and pay attention to and care for the doctrine and conduct of the pastor.[2284]

Deacons

3.20                The deacon is an ordained servant who has special gifts from Christ for the practical expression of the Gospel in the Church and the community. The particular function of the deacon is to extend mercy and compassion to the poor and suffering.

3.21                The deacon is to show an active and impartial concern for the wellbeing of everyone.[2285] As they fulfill their responsibility, the deacons are to give priority to the needs of those who are within the Church. This does not negate the personal responsibility of every Christian to love his/her neighbour through the practice of true religion.[2286] The members of a congregation are to respect and accept the work of the deacons as they fulfill their duties.[2287]

3.22                The deacons are also responsible for maintaining the church’s property in good order.

3.23                The deacons may choose one of their number, or a member of the congregation, to serve as the congregational treasurer. The treasurer will be accountable to the office bearers of the church in their administration of this role.

3.24                The discharge of the deacons’ service is under the supervision and authority of the session. The deacons shall meet with the session at least semi-annually to ensure that there remains unity and harmony among all the office bearers, and to review matters pertaining to the care of the life of the church and property.

3.25                Clarifying note: Scripture also sets forth the service of qualified widows as a means of providing support to them and a blessing to the Church. This service is not an ordained office. However, the elders and deacons may employ such widows according to the rules set down by the Apostle in 1 Timothy 5:3-16.

Training and Licensing Men for the Gospel Ministry

3.26                The Scriptures require that men who are to be ordained to the ministry of the Word should be proven godly and gifted.[2288] Any man therefore who believes himself to be called by Christ to the ministry of the Word within the RP Church of Canada, must be able to articulate clearly what has led him to present his request, by speaking to God’s work in, and call upon, his life.[2289]

3.27                The first step toward receiving a license to receive a call is for a man to be enrolled by the presbytery as a candidate for ordained ministry. A prospective candidate must have been a communicant member of the RP Church for at least two years.

3.28                His session shall provide the presbytery with a written recommendation certifying that in its judgment his Christian faith, character, and potential gifts qualify him to be a candidate for the ordained ministry of the Word.[2290] This judgement may be obtained by giving him the opportunity to serve and exercise his gifts, including exhortation, preaching, and teaching in the life of the Church except during public worship. The recommendation should indicate whether the candidate’s gifts are best suited to the office of pastor or teacher.

3.29                Upon receiving this recommendation from the session, the presbytery shall meet the prospective candidate and inquire as to his holiness of life and his service as a faithful member in his congregation. The presbytery shall also inquire concerning the motives influencing him to desire the sacred office and seek to ascertain if he:

(a)    Has demonstrated a willingness to work and so provide for himself and his family, if applicable.[2291]

(b)    Is able to indicate that he understands something of the nature and demands of the ministry. While his understanding of these will necessarily be limited, he should nevertheless have some grasp of what he anticipates will be involved in the ministry, as well as the cost involved.[2292]

(c)    Has demonstrated himself to be a man who can interact with people of all ages and all levels of ability and is approachable.[2293]

(d)    Has demonstrated an ability to study, think, and formulate his thoughts into a coherent form.[2294]

(e)    Shown evidence of an active devotional life and clear growth in grace beyond that of his contemporaries who are believers in Christ.[2295]

(f)     Possesses a reputation which commands respect, both within and outside the Church.[2296]

(g)    Has shown himself to be a man willing to submit to authority—one who is humble, possessing a true servant heart and a genuine willingness to be taught.[2297]

3.30                Once satisfied with the prospective candidate’s suitability, the presbytery shall enroll him by a two-thirds majority vote. The presbytery will also grant the man a License to Preach (see, Form #15),granting him  liberty, under the presbytery’s guidance, to use and develop his gift of preaching in a congregation.

3.31                The RP Church of Canada shall provide a program for the instruction, training, and mentoring of candidates for the ministry of the Word.[2298] Ordinarily, the presbytery shall examine enrolled candidates over three years of preparation according to the following pattern:[2299]

(a)    At the end of each year the candidate shall be examined on some or all of the following subjects. Each subject must be covered at least once in the student’s training period:

●       Bible knowledge

●       Original languages

●       Systematic theology

●       Church history

●       Personal godliness

(b)    The student shall also preach before the presbytery at the end of each year of his training on a passage assigned to him; or give a lecture if he is being prepared as a teacher.

(c)    The student should preach in as many congregations of the presbytery as possible. The presbytery may set the texts on which to preach on these occasions.

(d)    The candidate shall also undertake a period of pastoral internship with a pastor in the presbytery at the end of his first and second years.

3.32                It is the responsibility of all the pastors, teachers, and ruling elders of the presbytery to familiarize themselves with candidates for ministry over the course of their training. This will include both taking opportunities to listen to the student preach and engaging meaningfully with him at least three times per year.

3.33                If possible, the presbytery shall financially assist candidates for ministry over the course of their training when financial support is needed.[2300]

3.34                The clerk of the presbytery shall keep track of the examinations along with any records for each enrolled candidate. The clerk shall also arrange in conjunction with the presbytery’s Training of Men for Ministry Committee, when each exam will be taken, so as to adequately cover assigned subjects. These exams will be conducted by a presbyter appointed by the clerk. Each examination shall be a serious analysis of the candidate’s competence in the area being examined. Questions from the floor shall be granted, as considered suitable by the presbytery.

3.35                When the candidate has satisfactorily completed his training along with the presbytery examinations, the presbytery shall proceed with an assessment towards granting him a License to Receive a Call:

(a)    The moderator shall read the Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3) to the candidate for licensure.

(b)    The candidate shall disclose any scruples he may have to the ConfessionCatechismsDirectory for the Worship of God, or Directory for Church Government, and the presbytery shall proceed, or take no action, accordingly.

(c)    The presbytery shall vote by roll call whether to certify the candidate as ‘Licensed to Receive a Call’. This certification must be made by a two-thirds majority vote.

(d)    If certified, the Vows of Licensure (see, Official Vows 4) shall be read by the moderator, assented to verbally, and signed by the candidate. The clerk shall keep these on record.

(e)    Having thus attested his subscription and adherence to the doctrines, worship, and government of the RP Church of Canada, he shall be furnished with a certificate of License to Receive a Call (see, Form #16) bearing the seal of the presbytery and the signatures of the moderator and the clerk. His name shall be placed on the pastoral roll.

3.36                A man licensed to receive a call is permitted to read and preach the Word, but he shall not administer the sacraments or pronounce the benediction; neither shall he participate in ordinations or conduct a marriage. He is under the jurisdiction of his presbytery and must attend its meetings, but he may not vote in the presbytery, nor can he represent it in a higher court, unless he is a ruling elder.

3.37                Ordinarily, if after three years a licentiate’s services do not appear to be edifying to the Church, or he is not actively seeking a call to pastoral service, then the presbytery shall recall his license.

3.38                A man shall only be ordained to the office of pastor/teacher once, and it shall precede his being installed as a pastor in a congregation, a mission work, or other pastoral work, or as a teacher in an institution. The ordination and installation of a pastor or teacher can only be undertaken by a presbytery.[2301] A ruling elder who subsequently trains and is called to become a pastor/teacher shall be ordained to the new role he is going to fulfil.

3.39                The presbytery’s clerk shall hold the credentials of its pastors which shall include a record of their education, training, license to receive a call, and ordination and installation(s).[2302]

Election, Ordination, and Installation of Pastors and Teachers

3.40                A congregation may call any pastor or licentiate of the RP Church of Canada or global sister Reformed Presbyterian Church. Ordained pastors or teachers from other denominations may also be called according to the procedure set out below (see, The Ways a Pastor’s Service may Change or End – By Transfer).

3.41                When the session has set a date for the election of a pastor, it shall be announced to the congregation on the two Lord’s Days prior to the election. It is commendable to appoint a particular day of fasting and prayer, when the congregation will humbly seek the Lord’s wisdom and blessing upon the election.[2303]

3.42                The session should be prepared to complete the Pastor’s Call (see, Form #7) at the time of the election. For convenience, all but the name of the candidate may be filled in prior to the meeting for election.

3.43                When the congregation meets for the election of a pastor, the interim moderator of the session shall:

(a)    Ensure that at least two thirds of the communicant members in good standing are present to constitute a quorum necessary for a ballot. Absentee ballots sent to the session shall count as present communicant members. Communicant members may also participate via live stream with the session’s approval.

(b)    Constitute the meeting by prayer, read from the Scriptures, and give a suitable exhortation.

(c)    Explain the proceedings of the meeting and ask the session to appoint at least two communicant members to count the votes.

(d)    Declare the man elected if he receives at least two-thirds of the votes cast by the congregation. If the congregation does indicate its approval, by at least two-thirds margin, the interim moderator shall declare that person elected.

(e)    Ensure the Pastor’s Call (see, Form #7) is completed and invite all officers and communicant and baptized members to sign the call.

3.44                The session shall immediately forward an electronic version of the completed Pastor’s Call (see, Form #7) to the clerk of the presbytery. If the man elected is currently serving a congregation, the session of that congregation shall also be immediately informed.

3.45                The clerk of the presbytery shall arrange an online meeting to determine if the elected man is a suitable fit for the calling congregation and if the compensation is adequate. This meeting shall take place no later than 10 days after the day of the election. Any objections and concerns regarding the call, from either the electing congregation or the congregation the man is currently serving, may be heard and discussed at this meeting.

3.46                If the presbytery is satisfied, then the man called can request up to 14 days to declare his acceptance or declinature of the call.

3.47                If the man called accepts the call, a suitable date shall be set for the ordination and/or installation by the presbytery clerk in consultation with the man called and the session of the calling congregation.

3.48                The Edict for the Ordination and Installation of a Licentiate (see, Form #18), or the Edict for Installation of a Pastor/Teacher (see, Form #19), shall be read to the calling congregation by the session clerk on the two Lord’s Day prior to the ordination and/or installation service.

3.49                On the day of the ordination and/or installation, the presbytery shall be constituted with prayer and will conduct the following service:

(a)    A brief recounting of the history leading to the ordination and/or installation service shall be given by the presbytery clerk.

(b)    A suitable Psalm sung, and prayer offered by the moderator of the presbytery.

(c)    The Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3) and Vows of Ordination and Installation (see, Official Vows 4) shall be read by the moderator, assented to verbally and signed by the candidate.

(d)    If the man is a pastor, the Vows of Ordination (see, Official Vows 4) shall be read by the moderator, and the verbal assent of the pastor sought. A pastor will lead in a prayer of installation.[2304] If the man called is a licentiate, he shall be asked to declare his subscription to the Constitution of the RP Church of Canada’s Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3). When this has been declared, the moderator shall put to him the Vows of Ordination (see, Official Vows 4) and seek the verbal assent of the licentiate.

(e)    Once the licentiate has taken his vows of ordination and declared his subscription to the standards, he shall be asked to kneel while the elders of the presbytery lay their hands upon him, and a pastor of the court will lead in a prayer of ordination.[2305] If the man being installed is already an ordained elder, this should not be done.

(f)     The moderator shall then declare the man officially ordained and/or installed as a pastor of the Gospel of Jesus Christ and will invite him to receive the right hand of fellowship from the members of the presbytery.

(g)    The pastor shall be furnished with the appropriate Certificate of Ordination and/or Certificate of Installation (see, Form #20) bearing the seal of the presbytery and the signatures of the moderator and clerk. His name shall be placed on the pastoral roll of the presbytery, which he will then sign.

(h)    The moderator, or another pastor, shall then preach a sermon fitting the occasion.

(i)     The service shall be concluded with a benediction pronounced by the installed pastor.

The Election, Ordination, and Installation of Ruling Elders

3.50                Every congregation shall elect its own ruling elders, except in extraordinary circumstances.[2306] Those chosen must:

(a)              Be a male communicant member of the congregation in good standing for at least one year.

(b)             Have served the Church in ways that have manifested his character, gifts, and qualifications as outlined by the Scriptures.[2307]

(c)              Be knowledgeable of and committed to the standards of the RP Church of Canada.

3.51                The decision to proceed with an election of a ruling elder(s), provided there are qualified men in the congregation, may be initiated by any of the following:

(a)              The session determines that an increase in the number of elders is needed.

(b)             A request from the congregation to the session to increase the number of elders.

(c)              A directive by the presbytery to hold an election for ruling elders.

3.52                The session shall inform the congregation that an election for ruling elder(s) will take place. The pastor shall preach and teach the congregation on the office and qualifications for the eldership.[2308] The session shall give the congregation a specified period of time for the submission of nominations to the session.

3.53                The session shall meet privately with each nominee to ascertain his qualifications, willingness to serve, and his affirmation of the Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3) and Vows of Ordination (see, Official Vows 4). No man shall be compelled to serve.[2309] Upon examination, if the session is satisfied that the nominee possesses the necessary character and fulfils the qualifications to be an elder, it shall certify him as eligible for election.

3.54                The session shall not be required to provide an explanation for why a particular nominee has not been certified.[2310] This is because a man may be nominated whom the session has been counseling or admonishing for some sin or other reason that would render him unfit for office, but which is not openly known or apparent to the congregation.[2311] Where a nominee is not certified by the session, the members of the congregation should not seek an explanation or harbour speculations about the nominee or the session. If any member believes that a nominee has not been certified for unjust reasons, he may appeal to the presbytery, but should realize that such a course of action may result in the public exposure of these matters.

3.55                The date of the election shall be announced to the congregation on the two Lord’s Days prior to the election. The session shall also announce the names of those it has certified on the two Lord’s Days prior to the election. Only the men certified by the session shall be eligible for election.

3.56                The session may appoint a particular day of fasting and prayer before the election, when the congregation will humbly seek the Lord’s wisdom and blessing upon the election.[2312]

3.57                At least two thirds of the communicant members in good standing shall constitute a quorum necessary for a ballot. Absentee ballots sent to the session shall count as present communicant members. Communicant members may also participate via live stream with the session’s approval.

3.58                Communicant members unable to attend the meeting may send their absentee ballot to the session.

3.59                A man must receive at least two thirds of the votes cast to be declared an elder-elect.

3.60                After a man has been elected to the office of ruling elder, the session shall notify the congregation of the date and time for his ordination. A man shall only be ordained to the office of ruling elder once.

3.61                The order of service for the ordination and installation shall be arranged by the session. As part of the service, a brief statement outlining the process undertaken may be given along with the Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3) to the elder-elect, the Vows of Ordination (see, Official Vows 4) shall be read by the pastor, assented to verbally and signed by the elder-elect. The elder-elect may then kneel, and the session and any other members of the presbytery who are present shall lay their hands upon him as a prayer of ordination is offered by the pastor. In case of installation, only a prayer of installation shall be offered.

The Election, Ordination, and/or Installation of Deacons

3.62                Every congregation shall elect its own deacons.[2313] Those chosen must:

(a)              Be a male communicant member of the congregation in good standing for at least one year.

(b)             Have served the Church in ways that have manifested his character, gifts, and qualifications as outlined by the Scriptures.[2314]

(c)              Be knowledgeable of and committed to the standards of the RP Church of Canada.

3.63                The decision to proceed with an election of a deacon(s), provided there are qualified men in the congregation, may be initiated by any of the following:

(a)              The session determines that an increase in the number of deacons is needed.

(b)             A request from the congregation to the session to increase the number of deacons.

(c)              A directive by the presbytery to hold an election for deacons.

3.64                The session shall inform the congregation that an election for a deacon(s) will take place. The pastor shall preach and teach the congregation on the office and qualifications for the deacon.[2315] The session shall give the congregation a specified period of time for the submission of nominations.

3.65                The session shall meet privately with each nominee to ascertain his qualifications, willingness to serve, and his affirmation of the Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3) and the Vows of Ordination and Installation (see, Official Vows 4). No man shall be compelled to serve.[2316] Upon examination, if the session is satisfied that the nominee possesses the necessary character and fulfils the qualifications to be a deacon, it shall certify him as eligible for election.

3.66                The session shall not be required to provide an explanation for why a particular nominee has not been certified.[2317] This is because a man may be nominated whom the session has been counseling or admonishing for some sin or other reason that would render him unfit for office, but which is not openly known or apparent to the congregation.[2318] Where a nominee is not certified by the session, the members of the congregation should not seek an explanation or harbour speculations about the nominee or the session. If any member believes that a nominee has not been certified for unjust reasons, he may appeal to the presbytery, but should realize that such a course of action may result in the public exposure of these matters.

3.67                The date of the election shall be announced to the congregation on the two Lord’s Days prior to the election. The session shall also announce the names of those it has certified on the two Lord’s Days prior to the election. Only the men certified by the session shall be eligible for election.

3.68                The session may appoint a particular day of fasting and prayer before the election, when the congregation will humbly seek the Lord’s wisdom and blessing upon the election.[2319]

3.69                At least two thirds of the communicant members in good standing shall constitute a quorum necessary for a ballot. Absentee ballots sent to the session shall count as present communicant members. Communicant members may also participate via live stream with the session’s approval.

3.70                Communicant members unable to attend the meeting may send their absentee ballot to the session.

3.71                A man must receive at least two thirds of the votes cast to be declared a deacon-elect.

3.72                After a man has been elected to the office of deacon, the session shall notify the congregation of the date and time for his ordination. A man shall only be ordained to the office of deacon once.

3.73                The order of service for the ordination and installation shall be arranged by the session. As part of the service, a brief statement outlining the process undertaken may be given along with the Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3) to the deacon-elect, the Vows of Ordination (Official Vows 4) shall be read by the pastor, assented to verbally, and signed by the deacon-elect. The deacon-elect may then kneel, and the session and any other members of the presbytery who are present shall lay their hands upon him/them as a prayer of ordination is offered by the pastor. In the case of installation, only a prayer of installation shall be offered.

The Ways a Pastor’s Service may Change or End

By Transfer

3.74                A pastor or teacher who has moved into the jurisdiction of another presbytery by a valid call, or otherwise, shall have his credentials transferred to that presbytery.[2320] Every presbytery shall exercise due diligence when receiving any pastor.[2321] The presbytery shall examine every pastor transferring into its jurisdiction which shall include: (1) a sermon or lecture delivered before the presbytery, (2) an examination in the soundness of the faith, and (3) an examination in personal godliness.[2322]

3.75                Pastors transferring from another denomination shall be examined by the presbytery. The examination should give particular attention to those subjects that distinguish the two denominations, as well as the transferring pastor’s understanding and affirmation of the Statement Concerning Subscription (see, Official Vows 3) and the Vows of Ordination and Installation (see, Official Vows 4).[2323] He is not to be re-ordained but shall be installed to a pastoral charge.

3.76                A pastor in good standing desiring affiliation with a true church of another denomination may, upon application, have his credentials forwarded by the presbytery to the new denomination (see, Form #22).[2324]

By Retirement

3.77                When a pastor retires from his charge, he may participate in discussions in the church courts but shall not vote except when granted to do so by the presbytery.[2325]

3.78                When it becomes apparent that a pastor, who is reluctant to retire, is unable to perform the duties of his office due to age, sickness, or other personal disabilities, he shall be retired from his charge by the presbytery, with grace and respect.[2326]

By Unsuitability

3.79                In rare cases it becomes apparent that the relationship between a congregation and its pastor is not suitable.[2327] When a two-thirds majority of communicant members desire to end the pastoral relationship, they may request this of the session or the presbytery. The presbytery should carefully inquire whether the request to end the relationship is reasonable and most beneficial to the Church. If such a change is made, the presbytery and higher courts (where applicable) shall ensure that all the churches understand that the ending of the pastoral relationship in no way discredits the gifts and calling of the pastor.[2328] The presbytery shall ensure that fair and adequate compensation for the pastor is provided until he obtains a new charge, except in the case of divestiture or deposition (see, below).[2329]

By Resignation

3.80                If a pastor desires to resign or leave his office, the presbytery shall ordinarily require him to wait six months to ascertain whether his reasons are worthy.[2330] If at the end of this time, his desire is unchanged and the presbytery is satisfied with his reasons, he shall be allowed to resign his ministry and the presbytery shall record the fact in its minutes and remove his name from the roll.

By Divestiture

3.81                A presbytery shall divest a pastor of his office if after a period of two years, it is clearly evident that he does not either possess the gifts requisite for the Gospel ministry or he fails to perform adequately the work of the ministry.[2331] Divestiture is not a Church censure. The presbytery shall give any pastor it contemplates divesting the opportunity to defend his office before the court. A motion to divest shall require a two-thirds majority vote of the presbytery.

3.82                When a pastor is divested from his office, the presbytery shall remove his name from its roll and commend him to a local congregation.

By Suspension

3.83                A pastor may be suspended from his office by censure of the presbytery and will be deprived of the privileges of his office until such time as the suspension is lifted (see, Chapter 4: Church Censures). [2332]

By Deposition

3.84                A pastor may be deposed from his office by censure of the presbytery for serious offences in doctrine or conduct that obviously disqualify the person from exercising office.[2333]

3.85                When a pastor of the Word is judged to have apostatized from the Christian faith he shall be deposed, and his ordination nullified. The clerk of the presbytery shall note the apostasy in the records. The presbytery may not, under any circumstance, transfer credentials of an apostate to a congregation of the universal visible Church.[2334]

The Ways a Ruling Elder’s or Deacon’s Service may Change or End

By Transfer

3.86                A ruling elder or deacon who transfers to another congregation does not continue to exercise the office unless he is elected by the new congregation and installed there. The process for the election of an elder is to be followed, but he is not to be re-ordained.

By Retirement

3.87                When an elder or deacon retires from his office, he may continue to participate in discussions in church courts but may not vote unless granted to do so by the session.[2335]

3.88                When an elder or deacon is unable to perform the duties of his office due to age, sickness, or other personal disabilities, he shall be retired from his charge with grace and respect by his session.[2336] He may only retain the privileges of his office, including participation in discussions in the church courts, as granted by the session.

By Unsuitability

3.89                In rare cases, it may become apparent that a man is unsuitable for the office he holds. If a two-thirds majority of communicant members support his removal from office, then that man shall be asked with care and grace to resign his charge. If he refuses, then the matter will be addressed by way of formal suspension. If that proves unsuccessful in getting the man to resign, then deposition will be pursued.

By Resignation

3.90                A ruling elder or deacon may request to resign from his charge within the congregation. If the grounds of his resignation are other than unsuitability, he may go through the process to be re-elected and installed to serve again.

By Divestiture

3.91                If it becomes apparent that the relationship between a congregation and one of its ruling elders or deacons is not suitable or edifying, that officer may be divested of his charge by a two-thirds majority vote of the session.[2337] Divestiture is not a Church censure and should be carried out tenderly. Opportunity shall be given to any communicant member to give reasons why the officer should not be divested of his charge.

By Suspension or Deposition

3.92                A ruling elder or deacon may be suspended from his office or deposed by judicial discipline for an offense in doctrine or life, or because of delinquent failure to perform the work of his office.[2338]

Chapter 4 — The Governing Assemblies of the Church

General Principles of Presbyterianism

4.1                    The Bible teaches that the Church is to be governed by assemblies of elders chosen to represent the Church as a whole.[2339] The governing assemblies, also known as courts, are the session, the presbytery, and the synod.

4.2                    The authority of each governing assembly increases based on the parity of authority of every elder. Since each ascending court is a broader representation of the entire Church, it possesses more authority than the individual courts that comprise it.[2340]

4.3                    Each court has the authority to call before it any person within its jurisdiction. Each has the power to hear and determine controversies, discipline cases, and to dispense Church censures. If any person believes that he/she has been wronged by the decision of a lower assembly, he/she has the right of appeal to a higher court.

4.4                    Since the governing assemblies of the Church represent the authority of the entire Church, no judicial decision may be made apart from a quorum necessary to constitute each court. Whenever a decision or action of a lower court is appealed to a higher court, no members of the lower court will be recused from the deliberations and vote. In the case of a judicial matter, the entire court shall hear the matter and render its judgment. No judicial matter shall be delegated to a Church committee.

4.5                    A higher court may appoint some of its members temporarily to participate in a lower court in order to maintain a quorum.

4.6                    No court may meet while a higher court is meeting without the permission of the higher court.

4.7                    A court may invite those of similar standing from other churches to participate in its meetings as consultative members.

4.8                    The power of Church courts is a pastoral, declarative, moral, and spiritual application of the doctrines and precepts of Jesus Christ.[2341]

Committees of the Courts

4.9                    A committee consists of members appointed by a court for a particular purpose. A committee has no power to act in the name of the appointing court, but must bring its reports and recommendations to that court for its consideration.

The Session

4.10                The elders of a congregation are known in their formal and collective capacity as the ‘session’.[2342] A session exercises jurisdiction over a local congregation and is subject to the authority of the presbytery to which it belongs.[2343]

4.11                The session is charged with watching over and ruling the congregation as spiritual shepherds. In order to fulfill this duty, the session shall diligently seek to:

(a)    Ensure that all matters concerning the conduct of public worship are according to God’s Word outlined in the Directory for Worship.

(b)    Visit the membership to ascertain what growth in grace has been experienced and to give encouragement regarding the daily use of the means of grace.[2344]

(c)    Exercise discipline according to the process outlined in the Directory for Church Government (see, Church Censures).

(d)    Oversee the service of thedeacons to ensure that there is no divergence in either approach to, or fulfillment of, the Church’s service of Christ.

(e)    Meet monthly for business and frequently pray for the congregation.

(f)     Keep the roll of both communicant and baptized members. This roll shall include births, baptisms, receptions into communicant membership, transfers, censures, and restorations.

(g)    Submit an electronic copy of its minutes to the presbytery, along with a brief report summarizing the various actions, activities, and spiritual health of the congregation.

(h)    Arrange congregational meetings (see, Congregational Meetings).

(i)     Appoint and certify ruling elders to higher governing courts.

4.12                A majority of the elders shall constitute a quorum of the session. The pastor shall ordinarily serve as the moderator of the session for as long as he remains the pastor of the congregation, and a ruling elder ordinarily serves as the clerk.

4.13                If a congregation does not have at least two elders, then the presbytery may appoint a provisional ruling elder(s) from a neighbouring congregation until such time as a new ruling elder(s) may be elected. The provisional ruling elder(s) may attend a session meeting via videoconferencing. In the event of the congregation being without a pastor, the presbytery may appoint an interim moderator.

The Presbytery

4.14                A presbytery is the governing assembly consisting of the pastors, teachers, and ruling elders appointed as representatives by the congregations within its specified geographical area. It has the responsibility to oversee the spiritual welfare and govern the congregations under its care. [2345]

4.15                In fulfillment of its responsibility, the presbytery will receive and determine matters that relate to the spiritual condition of the regional church, including:

(a)    Addressing issues of doctrine which may injure the purity or peace of the Church.

(b)    Exercising discipline in accordance with the process outlined in the Directory for Church Government (see, Church Censures).

(c)    Taking under its care men seeking training for the Gospel ministry (see, Training and Licensing Men for the Gospel Ministry).

(d)    Ordaining, installing, and removing pastors and teachers (see, Election, Ordination and Installation of Pastors and Teachers and The Ways a Pastor’s Service May Change or End).

(e)    Fostering fellowship among the congregations within its bounds.

(f)     Establishing new congregations within its bounds (see, Organizing Congregations).

(g)    Disjoining and disorganizing congregations (see, Disjoining Congregations and Disorganizing Congregations).

4.16                Each presbytery is free to assemble as often as circumstances may require. However, a presbytery shall hold at least two regular meetings each year, one in the spring (ordinarily in April) and the other in the fall (ordinarily in October).

4.17                To constitute a presbytery, a quorum of certified elders must be present from at least one half of the congregations on the roll of the presbytery; and at least one fourth of the elders present must be ruling elders. Certified elders may join a meeting by videoconference but should not ordinarily do so. Any elder may participate in debate, but only certified elders are entitled to vote.

4.18                Each elder must be certified by his session. This may be done by email to the clerk of the presbytery.

4.19                The session of each congregation shall send certified delegates to each meeting of the presbytery; these would normally include a pastor and a ruling elder. Where a congregation has called other pastors/teachers to serve on its staff, they should also be certified as delegates. Congregations with more than 100 members (communicant and baptized) shall be entitled to an additional delegate.

4.20                The moderator of the presbytery is to be chosen by the court as the first item of business. Each meeting of the presbytery is (ordinarily) constituted by the moderator from the previous meeting. There is no limit to the number of times a man may be chosen to serve as the moderator.

4.21                The moderator of the presbytery is not entitled to vote in the courts of the Church except in the case of equal votes being cast on either side of a question. The moderator may record his dissent and complaint against the decisions of the court as other members may.

4.22                The moderator of the presbytery shall:

(a)    Ordinarily begin the meeting with devotional exercises prior to the constitution of the court.

(b)    Work through the business on the agenda as expeditiously as possible, while seeking to ensure that all the members of the court clearly understand the nature of the matters being discussed and have reasonable opportunity to speak to them.

(c)    Give guidance to persons involved in cases coming before the court.

(d)    Express the judgements and administer the censures of the court.

4.23                The presbytery shall appoint its own clerk who must be a member of the court. Given the nature of the clerk’s responsibilities, it is beneficial to appoint a gifted man who is willing to serve for many consecutive years.

4.24                The clerk of the presbytery shall:

(a)    Maintain a current roll of the members of the court and ensure that a quorum of certified elders is present prior to the constitution of each meeting.

(b)    Prepare, in conjunction with the moderator, an agenda for each meeting of the court. Ordinarily, the agenda should be circulated two weeks prior to the meeting, but no less than two days in the case of an extraordinary meeting.

(c)    Produce formal minutes of each meeting using the standard form of the RP Church of Canada. Ordinarily, the minutes should be circulated to all church sessions within one week of the meeting.

(d)    Retain all official papers produced or adopted by the presbytery.

(e)    Provide an annual report to the spring meeting of the presbytery which will include a listing of the current students under care, licensures, ordinations, installations, active pastors, pastors without charge, congregations without pastors, dissolutions of pastoral relationships, congregational organizations or disorganizations, unions or divisions of congregations, important congregational or presbytery matters, and any information he believes to be pertinent to the presbytery’s work.

4.25                Prior to the spring meeting, the clerk shall arrange the annual review of the minutes of each session to ensure that matters pertaining to the life of each congregation within its bounds are consistent with the standards of the RP Church of Canada.

4.26                At the spring meeting, the presbytery shall receive a brief report from each congregation within its bounds summarizing the various actions, activities, and spiritual health of the congregation.

The Synod

4.27                The synod is the broadest, and therefore highest, governing assembly of the Church. It consists of the pastors, teachers, and ruling elders appointed as representatives by the congregations from all presbyteries. The synod has the responsibility of overseeing the spiritual welfare and governance of the presbyteries under its care. Upon the establishment of two presbyteries, a synod will be constituted and shall meet annually.

4.28                Each elder must be certified by his session. This may be done by email to the clerk of the synod.

4.29                The session of each congregation shall send certified delegates to each meeting of the synod. This delegation would normally include a pastor and a ruling elder. Where a congregation has called other pastors/teachers to serve on its staff, they should also be certified as delegates. Congregations with more than 100 members (communicant and baptized) shall be entitled to an additional delegate.

4.30                The moderator of the synod is to be chosen by the court as the first item of business. Each meeting of the synod is ordinarily constituted by the moderator from the previous year.

4.31                The moderator of the synod is not entitled to vote in the courts of the Church except in the case of equal votes being cast on either side of a question. He may record his dissent and complaint against the decisions of the court as other members may.

4.32                The moderator of the synod shall:

(a)    Work through the business on the agenda as expeditiously as possible, while seeking to ensure that all the members of the court clearly understand the nature of the matters being discussed and have reasonable opportunity to speak to them.

(b)    Give guidance to persons involved in cases coming before the court.

(c)    Express the judgements and administer the censures of the court.

(d)    Begin the following year’s meeting with devotional exercises.

4.33                The synod shall appoint its own clerk who must be a member of the court. Given the nature of the clerk’s responsibilities, it is beneficial to appoint a gifted man who is willing to serve for many consecutive years.

4.34                The clerk of the synod shall:

(a)    Maintain a current roll of the members of the court and ensure that a quorum of certified elders is met prior to the constitution of each meeting.

(b)    Prepare the agenda for each meeting of the court. Ordinarily, the agenda should be circulated one month prior to the meeting.

(c)    Produce formal minutes of each meeting using the standard form of the RP Church of Canada. Ordinarily, the minutes should be circulated to all church sessions within one week of the meeting.

(d)    Retain all official papers produced or adopted by the synod.

Chapter 5 – Church Censures

General Principles of Church Discipline

5.1          Church discipline is a vital part of biblical discipleship.[2346] It is the exercise of that authority which the Lord Jesus Christ has committed to the visible Church for the preservation of its purity, peace, and blessing. Discipline keeps the Church from provoking the anger and wrath of God against his people, it prevents the name of God from being blasphemed by unbelievers, and it preserves the godly from the influence of false teaching and godless morals. The goal of discipline is to bring about the repentance and full restoration of the offending member.[2347] The exercise of discipline is to be motivated by the love of Christ and his Church. No Church court shall avoid implementing Church discipline under the pretense of showing love to the offender or out of a concern for offending others in the congregation.

5.2          No accused person shall be deprived of the right to plead and offer evidence in his/her defense in any court of the Church. If any member believes he/she has been unjustly censured by the session, that person may appeal to the presbytery. If the presbytery upholds the censure, the person may appeal to the synod. The censure shall stand until it is overturned by a higher court. When a presbytery or a synod receives an appeal respecting a Church censure, it shall not adjudicate the matter by a committee. The entire court shall hear the case to determine the matter. The person making the appeal is entitled to speak on his/her own behalf or with the assistance of counsel. The clerk of the court must ensure that the members of the court possess all relevant documents pertaining to each case prior to the meeting, in order for the court to make informed decisions. Every judgment is to be made in the name of Jesus Christ without partiality.[2348]

Censures Prior to Excommunication

5.3          An offense is anything in the doctrine or practice of a Christian which is contrary to the Word of God. For something to be considered an offense it must be proved to be such from Scripture and be supported by two or more witnesses.[2349]

5.4          The appropriate civil authorities and the session must be immediately informed of any sin which is also a civil or criminal offense. An elder shall inform the offender that it is his duty to carry out this action. The session shall take measures to ensure the safety of all with respect to any person who has been convicted of a sexual or violent crime.

5.5          Private offenses are those which are known by only a few persons. Public offenses are those which are commonly known by many persons and are, in most cases, scandalous.

5.6          When an offended person has unsuccessfully attempted to reconcile a private offense with the offending party, he/she should discreetly seek the help of one or a few spiritually mature members. All should follow the prescribed process laid out in Matthew 18:15-16. If private means fail, then the matter should be brought to the attention of the elders of the congregation of which the offender is a member.

5.7          The elders must carefully examine each case of offense or sin that comes to its attention. Spiritual maturity, access to faithful teaching, and mental capacity are factors that should be taken into consideration when determining what degree of discipline is warranted. The suitable degree of discipline shall be prayerfully determined to restore the offender and preserve the Church from scandal.

5.8          The session shall keep records of any relevant correspondence respecting each case of discipline, as well as detailed minutes. This shall be done to assist a higher court to render a just judgment should the matter be appealed. Any censure officially given to the offender in a constituted court shall be recorded in the minutes.

5.9          No member under the process of Church discipline shall be granted a transfer to another congregation until the accusation(s) against him/her have been cleared. If the person transfers his/her membership to another denomination prior to resolution of the matter, the appropriate court shall inform the receiving church of its concerns and provide a record of the censure.

5.10      The manner of communicating a censure should be in the spirit of loving pastoral discipline. Several forms are provided to help elders articulate the appropriate censure (see, Form #s 27, 28, 35, 35, and 37). Although all censures administered by a court are to be recorded in the minutes, the censures of admonition and rebuke are not ordinarily to be publicly declared or published.

Admonition

5.11      Admonition is the lightest degree of censure and is commonly used in cases of neglect of duty. It consists of reproving the offender by warning him/her of the danger of his/her course and encouraging him/her to greater faithfulness (see, Form #32).

Rebuke

5.12      Rebuke is a censure used in cases of active transgression or where there is continued neglect of duty despite counsel and admonition. It consists of an authoritative reproof in the name of Christ with a call for repentance and reformation of life (see, Form #33).

Suspension

5.13      Suspension is the temporary exclusion from the Lord’s Supper and other privileges of Church membership. This censure should ordinarily be given only after the session has patiently sought to bring about repentance through encouragement, counsel, and the censures of admonition and rebuke. However, suspension may also be imposed when a scandalous public sin has suddenly become known to the elders. When an offending member is suspended, the court shall impress upon the offender that the censure has been imposed with the hope that it would be removed. The court shall appoint an elder to inform the congregation publicly the first Lord’s Day after the censure has been imposed by reading Form #34 to the congregation.

5.14      Whenever a suspended person manifests signs of genuine repentance, he/she is to be forgiven and fully restored to the Lord’s Supper and the privileges of membership. An elder shall publicly declare before the congregation the offender’s confession, repentance, and resolve, through the strength of Christ, to sin no more. This shall be done on the first Lord’s Day after the censure has been lifted by reading Form #38 to the congregation. Although it is not required, a written or verbal confession to the congregation by the repentant member should be encouraged and welcomed as an effective means of full restoration.

Excommunication

5.15      If a suspended member remains obstinate after patient attempts to bring about restoration, he/she is liable to excommunication. Excommunication is the cutting off a person from the communion of the visible Church. It is the final and most terrible censure of the Church. It should never be inflicted without mature deliberation and prayer, or until all other means of bringing about repentance have been exhausted. Excommunication is reserved for those sins that overthrow the Christian Faith or destroy the power of godliness within a congregation.

5.16      Before the session carries out the sentence, the elders shall ask the offender at least three times to appear before the session. If the offender appears, the elders shall warn the offender from the Scriptures concerning the nature of the sin and the danger of impenitency, especially after so much effort has been expended on the offender’s behalf. The elders shall remind the offender of the woeful condition of those who are cast out of the communion of the saints. The session should implore the offender to consider how God in Christ stands ready and willing to forgive and how the church desires to see the person restored. Such exhortations should be impressed upon the offender from suitable places of Scripture. Prayer shall also be offered.

5.17      When a sin is especially grievous the Church may proceed to excommunication more expeditiously. If the offender will not appear before the session, the elders shall pray for him/her. If by the last meeting with the offender there is no evidence of repentance, the session shall pronounce the sentence of excommunication, whether the offender is present or not. Prayer shall also accompany the sentence.

5.18      The session shall appoint an elder to inform the congregation publicly on the first Lord’s Day after the censure has been imposed by reading Form #37. If the excommunicated offender was not present at his/her sentencing, the offender shall be notified of it. The sentence is also to be made known to all the congregations of the RP Church of Canada as well as any true Church which enquires about the membership status of the person.

5.19      Given the severity of this censure, the session shall inform the presbytery of its action.

Restoration

5.20      If there are credible signs of true repentance following excommunication, the individual should stand before the congregation and confess his/her sin and sorrow for it. The person shall call upon God for mercy in Christ and express a desire to be restored to the communion of the Church. This may be done extemporaneously or by reading a sincere, carefully written statement. The person shall then publicly affirm the Vows of Church Membership (see, Official Vows 1). Following this, the person shall be pronounced, in the name of Jesus Christ, free from the censures of the Church and restored to all the privileges of communicant membership. The congregation shall immediately receive the person with love, joy, and brotherly affection (see, Form #39).


Official Vows

1. Vows of Church Membership

1. Do you believe the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments to be the Word of God, the only infallible rule for faith and life?

2. Do you believe in the one living and true God—Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as revealed in the Scriptures?

3. Do you repent of your sin; confess your guilt and helplessness as a sinner against God; profess Jesus Christ, Son of God, as your Saviour and Lord; and dedicate yourself to his service: Do you promise that you will endeavour to forsake all sin, and to conform your life to his teaching and example?

4. To the end that you may grow in the Christian life, do you promise that you will:

a)       Diligently read the Bible, engage in private prayer, keep the Lord’s Day, participate in public worship, observe the sacraments, and give back to the Lord as he biblically requires?

b)      Seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness in all the relationships of life, faithfully to perform your whole duty as a true servant of Jesus Christ, and seek to win others to him?

c)       Accept your responsibility to work with others in the Church, and do you promise to support and encourage them in their service to the Lord?

d)      Submit in the Lord to the teaching and government of this Church as being based upon the Scriptures and set forth in the Constitution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada?

e)       Respect the authority and discipline of the Church, should you need correction in doctrine or life?

5. Do you make this profession of faith and state these promises in the presence of God, in humble reliance upon his grace, as you desire to give your account with joy at the Last Great Day?

2. Parental/Legal Guardian Baptismal Vows

1.    Do you believe this child is God’s possession entrusted to your care? Do you promise therefore to provide for his/her physical and emotional wellbeing?

2.    Do you promise to teach him/her to love God and his Word, and to provide him/her with a God-centered education?

3.    Do you promise to teach him/her of his/her sinful nature, of the plan of salvation which centers on Jesus Christ, of his/her own personal need of a relationship with Christ, and the need for daily repentance of sin?

4.    To the end that he/she may grow in the Christian life, do you promise to pray for him/her, and to train him/her to read the Bible, to pray, to keep the Lord’s Day, and to understand the nature of the Church, the value of its worship and fellowship, and his/her need to seek communicant membership in the Church?

5.    Do you promise to lead him/her by your example and parental discipline, exercised in love, to seek first the Kingdom of God and his righteousness in all his/her relationships?

6.    Do you make these promises in the presence of God, in humble reliance upon his grace, as you desire to give your account with joy at the Last Great Day?

3. Statement Concerning Subscription

Subscribing, in the presence of Almighty God, to the Doctrinal Standards of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada is a solemn act and should only be entered into following prayerful deliberation.

A man who has any doubts or scruples about subscribing to the Doctrinal Standards of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada shall not be admitted to a Church office. No man is at liberty to subscribe to doctrines which he does not truly believe.

If during the fulfilment of his office a man alters his views concerning any part of the doctrine, worship, or order of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada, he must:

1.       Reflect on the fact that no church constitution will express every biblical truth in a way that will satisfy everyone, and that the purest churches are subject to error.

2.       Decide if he can conscientiously remain silent about them. If he can, then he may remain in peace. However, if he cannot and feels compelled to speak, publish, or propagate them, then he must inform the session and the presbytery immediately with a view to peaceably joining another branch of the visible Church, with which he can walk harmoniously.

Date: [date]

Signature: [signature]

Subscription Exceptions

The RP Church of Canada permits her office bearers, if they deem it necessary, to hold to two exceptions to the Westminster Confession of Faith:

Exception 1

Chapter 24:4 of the Confession states that, “The man may not marry any of his wife’s kindred nearer in blood than he may of his own; nor the woman of her husband’s kindred nearer in blood than of her own.” In view of the uncertainty among many students of Scripture as to the true interpretation of the injunction laid down in Leviticus 18:18, any office bearer having reservations on this subject may take exception to subscribing to this clause.

Exception 2

Chapter 25:6 of the Confession states that, “The Pope of Rome … is that Antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalts himself, in the Church, against Christ and all that is called God.” In view of the manifest uncertainty in interpreting prophetic passages of Scripture, any office bearer having reservations about specifically identifying the papacy with the antichrist rather than an antichrist, may take an exception to this clause.

Subscription Clarifications

Subscription to the confessional standards of the RP Church of Canada requires the acceptance of the following clarifying statements to the Westminster Confession of Faith:

Clarification 1

The RP Church of Canada maintains that the phrase “in the space of six days,” and “all very good” in Chapter 4.1 of the Confession requires the plain sense interpretation of Genesis. The duration of the creation period was six days of ordinary length, and the state of the original creation prior to the curse was perfect and without death. [2350]

Clarification 2

In the Westminster Confession of Faith:

Chapter 23:3: This portion of article 3 harmonizes with its first sentence, as well as chapters 30 and 31. It refers to a civil magistrate’s responsibility to uphold the first table of the moral law and not to support Erastian (State) authority, jurisdiction, or interference regarding the affairs of the Church. Furthermore, no part of the Westminster standards countenances persecution for conscience’s sake.[2351]

Chapter 31:2: This second article refers to times when the visible Church is not settled, or when schisms and factions prevail within a nation. Civil magistrates are to uphold the first table of the moral law, but they do not have authority or jurisdiction over the Church. The word ‘synod’ in this section, does not refer to the church court commonly called the ‘Synod’, but to an advisory committee, such as the Council of Nicaea, the Synod of Dort, or the Westminster Assembly. Church government, being distinct from civil government, is always free to assemble as often as needed for the good of the Church.

Therefore, we express our reservations regarding these three sections of the Westminster Confession of Faith and understand that they should be interpreted in accordance with the decision of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, upon receiving the Confession of Faith in 1647, stated:

“The Assembly understandeth some parts of the second article of the thirty-first chapter only of kirks not settled or constituted in point of Government and that, although in such kirks a Synod of Pastors, and other fit persons, may be called by the Magistrate’s authority and nomination without any other call, to consult and advise with, about matters of religion; and although, likewise, the Pastors of Christ, without delegation from their Churches, may of themselves, and by virtue of their office, meet together synodically in such kirks not yet constituted, yet neither of these ought to be done in kirks constituted and settled.”

The RP Church of Canada’s acceptance of this interpretation does not imply the granting of any authority to the magistrate other than the requesting of pastors and other qualified persons to assemble together.

4. Vows for Licensure, Ordination, and Installation

“I [name], do sincerely believe and own all the doctrine set forth in the Westminster Confession of Faith, and the Larger Catechism and Shorter Catechism to be the teaching of the Word of God. I declare these as the confession of my faith. I do seriously promise and vow, in the presence of Almighty God, that I will consistently adhere to, maintain, and defend this doctrine. I also vow to keep and uphold the Directory for Worship of God and the Directory for Church Government of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada.

If I should ever find myself unable sincerely to own and believe any doctrine set forth in the Westminster Confession of Faith, and the Larger Catechism and Shorter Catechism, then I promise, in the presence of Almighty God, that I will not propagate or defend these sentiments, either by preaching, teaching, or writing. I will reveal and explain my new convictions to the session, the presbytery, or a higher court, where they may be examined. If necessary, I promise cheerfully to submit to the judgment of the court and/or that I will peaceably withdraw and join some other branch of the visible Church, with which I can walk harmoniously.”

Date: [date]

Signature: [signature]

For ordination of ruling elders add:

So far as I know in my heart, it is the call of Christ, the glory of God, and the welfare of the Church, and not any selfish object, that has moved me to undertake this sacred office.

I am determined to seek the Holy Spirit’s guidance. I promise, in his strength, to live a holy and exemplary life, to study and promote the purity, peace, unity, and progress of the Church, to watch over the spiritual growth of the members of the congregation, to endeavour to win others to Christ, to visit the afflicted, and to attend the meetings associated with my office.

Date: [date]

Signature: [signature]

For the ordination of pastors/teachers add:

So far as I know in my heart, it is the call of Christ, the glory of God, and the welfare of the Church, and not any selfish object, that has moved me to undertake this sacred office.

I promise, in the strength of the Holy Spirit, to live a holy and exemplary life, to study and promote the purity, peace, unity, and progress of the Church, to watch over the spiritual growth of the members of the congregation, to endeavour to win others to Christ, to visit the afflicted, and to attend the meetings associated with my office. I promise, in his strength, to bring to the congregation the fruits of earnest study of the Word, to watch for souls as one who must give an account, to maintain a testimony for God’s Kingdom, and to endeavour to win others to Christ.

Date: [date]

Signature: [signature]

For the ordination of deacons add:

So far as I know in my heart, it is the call of Christ, the glory of God, and the welfare of the Church, and not any selfish object, that has moved me to undertake this sacred office.

I am determined to seek the Holy Spirit’s guidance. I promise, in his strength, faithfully to keep and distribute the tithes and offerings given to the Church according to the sincere needs of God’s people and in the interest of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ. And I endeavour to handle the Lord’s money without covetousness and in a manner worthy of Christ’s service.

Date: [date]

Signature: [signature]


Session Oversight Forms

Form 1 – Certificate of Reception

This is to certify that [name of member] was received into membership of the [name and location of congregation] on the [date].

Clerk of Session: [signature]

Moderator of Session: [signature]

Note: This form is to be sent to the dismissing session.

Form 2 – Transfer of Membership

This is to certify that [name] is a member of [name of congregation], and is at his/her own request, hereby dismissed to unite with the [name of congregation]. This certificate is valid for one year from the date of issue for transfer within the denomination. For transfer from the denomination, the transfer becomes effective immediately.

Date: [date]

Clerk of Session: [signature]

Moderator of Session: [signature]

Note: This may be amended to include other communicant members from the same family transferring to the same congregation. If there are baptized children, but not communicant members, it should be noted, and their name(s) should be recorded. If the issuing session desires to state exceptions, or grounds for censure in the certificate, they should be noted above the signatures of the clerk and moderator. This certificate should be given to the communicant member(s).

Form 3 – Notice of a Congregational Meeting to Elect a Pastor

The session having decided to conduct an election for a pastor, the congregation is called to meet on the [date], at [time], at [place of meeting]. Members unable to be present may send absentee votes to the meeting enclosed in a sealed envelope, given or mailed to the Clerk of Session. The envelope shall bear the name of the communicant member and shall be addressed to the session. Absentee votes are valid only on the first electing ballot.

By order of the Session, this [date]

Clerk of Session: [signature]

Moderator of Session: [signature]

Form 4 – Notice of a Congregational Meeting to Elect Elder(s)/Deacon(s)

The session having decided to conduct an election for an elder(s)/ deacon(s), the congregation is called to meet on the [date], at [time], at [place of meeting]. Members unable to be present may send absentee votes to the meeting enclosed in a sealed envelope, given or mailed to the Clerk of Session. The envelope shall bear the name of the communicant member and shall be addressed to the session. Absentee votes are valid only on the first electing ballot.

By order of the Session, this [date]

Clerk of Session: [signature]

Moderator of Session: [signature]

Form 5 – Edict for Ordination and/or Installation of Ruling Elder(s)

[Name of the elder(s)], having been chosen to the office of ruling elder by this congregation, and having been examined by session and judged qualified to take the office, notice is hereby given that the [date] has been fixed as the time for the ordination and/or installation, with certification that the session will proceed in the same manner, unless some valid objections be offered to the session, which is appointed to meet on the [date], at [time] a.m./p.m., at [place of meeting]. The meeting for the ordination and/or installation will be held at [time] a.m./p.m., at [place of meeting].

By order of the Session, this [date]

Clerk of Session: [signature]

Moderator of Session: [signature]

Form 6 – Edict for the Ordination and/or Installation of Deacon(s)

[Name of the deacon(s)], having been chosen to the office of deacon by this congregation, and having been examined by the session and judged qualified to take the office, notice is hereby given that the [date] has been fixed as the time for the ordination and/or installation, with certification that the session will proceed in the same manner, unless some valid objection(s) be offered to the session, which is appointed to meet on the [date], at [time] a.m./p.m., at [place of meeting]. The meeting for the ordination and/or installation will be held at [time] a.m./p.m., at [place of meeting].

By order of the Session, this [date]

Clerk of Session: [signature]

Moderator of Session: [signature]

Form 7 – Pastor’s Call

We, the office-bearers, communicant members, and baptised members of the [name of the congregation] of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada, being without a stated pastor, and knowing well your pastoral qualifications, especially your piety and soundness in the faith, do with the permission of the presbytery, call you, Mr./Rev. [full name] to become the pastor of our congregation. Upon your acceptance of this Call and performing your pastoral duties among us, we promise you our dutiful respect, obedience, encouragement, and support in the Lord.

In witness thereof, we sign this Call at [location] on this [date]

[names and signatures of communicant members]

[names and signatures of covenant children]

Ruling Elders: [signatures]; Date: [date]

Form 8 – Pastor’s Covenant of Employment

We, the [name of the congregation] congregation, under the care of the [name of the presbytery], being without a pastor to take the spiritual oversight of us in the Lord; and satisfied that your spiritual attainments, intellectual abilities, and soundness in the faith, with the concurrence of the presbytery, call you, [full name of the pastor], to undertake the office of pastor among us.

Upon your accepting this call and performing the duties of your office as set forth in the Constitution of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada, we promise you all due respect and support in the Lord.

We hereby promise to pay you [list the amount of the total annual compensation package], payable in [number] installments of $[amount] per year.

We include the following in the compensation package, except item 4 as shown below:

1. Housing (Indicate which of the following you will provide)

•         Free use of the church manse

•         $[Amount] per month to be used for housing

•         $[Amount] as an interest-free loan to be used for down payment on housing

•         Payment of utilities, water, gas, electricity, phone, trash service, etc.

•         Payment of $[amount] to be used for utilities

List any other housing arrangements.

2. Business Expenses (Indicate which of the following you will provide by a check mark and/or fill in the amount)

•         Provide a car/van for church use

•         Mileage allowance as set forth by the synod

•         Mileage allowance of $[amount] per kilometer

•         Mileage allowance of $[amount] per month

•         Office materials and supplies

•         Book allowance of $[amount] per month

•         Study/office, equipment, telephone, etc.

•         Fees:

o   Synod

o   Presbytery

o   Presbytery Camps

o   Seminars

o   Educational Meetings

o   Other [list]

•         Secretarial services

•         $[Amount] to be used for hospitality and/or entertainment expenses

List any other business expenses to be paid.

3. Other Benefits (Indicate the congregation’s specific plan and commitment to provide for the new pastor’s continuing pastoral development such as sabbatical leave, annual professional conference attendance, the purchase of books, and related professional resources as recommended by the synod.)

(Indicate which of the following you will provide by a check mark and/or fill in the amount.)

•         Pension Plan:

o   Synod

o   Annuity

o   $[Amount] Payment in lieu of Social Security

o   Health Insurance: [came of plan, and amount to be paid]

•         [Number] of weeks will be provided for vacation time each year

•         Attendance at church functions:

o   Time off for synod meetings

o   Time off for presbytery meetings

o   Family/youth conferences

o   Other [list]

•         List any other special benefits.

4. Moving Expenses (Indicate which of the following you will provide.)

•         Cost of professional movers from present location to new location

•         $[Amount] to be used for moving expenses

We promise to review annually with you the adequacy of this compensation prior to the adoption of the congregation’s budget meeting to take into account the cost-of-living increase (C.P.I.).

In witness thereof, we subscribe this call and financial agreement, the [date], in the presence of these witnesses:

Elders: [list all]

Deacons: [list all]

Communicant Members: [list all]

Form 9 – Attestation of a Call

I [name], appointed by the [name of presbytery] Presbytery of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada to moderate a Call in the [name of congregation] congregation under the care of the [name of presbytery] Presbytery, certify that I conducted the moderation as appointed, that it issued in favour of Mr./Rev.[name of pastor], and that I witnessed the signing of this Call at the time of moderation, and afterwards committed it to the members of the session, that others not then present might have the opportunity of adding their names.

Moderator: [signature]; Date: [date]

Form 10 – In Support of a Call

To the Moderator and other members of the [name of presbytery] Presbytery of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada, to meet in [location of meeting] on [date]. The Petition of the [name of congregation] congregation of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada, humbly shows that your petitioners, having met with the approval of your court for the election of a pastor of our congregation, have chosen and resolved to call Mr./Rev. [full name] to undertake the pastoral charge amongst us; that your petitioners ask your court to sustain and issue this Call; and we appoint [name of person], [name of person] and [name of person] to represent us before your presbytery and support this Call.

By order of the Session, this [date]

Clerk of Session: [signature]

Moderator of Session: [signature]

 Presbytery Oversight Forms

Form 11 – Petition for the Organization of a New Congregation

To the [name of the presbytery] Presbytery, meeting on the [date], at [location of meeting]. We the [name of mission church, fellowship, or “undersigned” in case of no current organization], a body of [number] people located in or around [location within the presbytery’s bounds], confident in Christ’s promises to build his Church and convinced by his providence that such a work has begun among us, hereby petition this presbytery to grant the organization of this body into a congregation of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada under the oversight of the [name of presbytery] Presbytery. We believe that God has provided men capable of constituting a session and acting as Christ’s under-shepherds for us. We seek this privilege from the presbytery with full reliance on God’s grace and not on ourselves.

Given this [date] by request of the undersigned.

Temporary Governing Body: [signatures]

Ruling Elder(s)-elect (as applicable):[signature(s)]

Pastor(s)/Teacher(s) elder(s)-elect (as applicable): [signature(s)]

Deacon(s)-elect (as applicable): [signature(s)]

Communicant Members (as applicable): [signatures]

Form 12 – Edict for the Organization of a New Congregation

The [name of the presbytery] Presbytery has received a petition made by the [name of petitioning body] requesting the organization of a congregation of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada to be located in [location], and has granted this petition. The meeting for organization is intended to include the ordination and/or installation of the following officers, having been elected by the mission church and examined in accordance with the law and order of the Church: [name(s)] to the office of pastor/teacher (as applicable), [name(s)] to the office of ruling elder (as applicable), [name(s)] to the office of deacon (as applicable). Notice is hereby given that the [date] has been fixed as the time for the organization of this congregation, along with the ordination and/or installation of the previously mentioned officers, with certification that the presbytery will proceed in the same, unless some valid objection(s) be offered to the presbytery, which is to meet at [place of meeting] on the [date]. The meeting for organization will be held at [time], at [place of meeting].

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 13 – Edict for the Reception of an Existing Congregation

The [name of the presbytery] Presbytery has received a petition made by the [name of petitioning body] requesting its reception into the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada located in [location]. The presbytery has granted this petition. The meeting for organization is intended to include the reception of the following officers each of whom has given assent to their respective ordination vows of the RP Church of Canada: [name(s)] to the office of pastor/teacher (as applicable), [name(s)] to the office of ruling elder (as applicable), [name(s)] to the office of deacon (as applicable). Notice is hereby given that the [date] has been fixed as the time for the reception of this congregation with certification that the presbytery will proceed in the same, unless some valid objection(s) be offered to the presbytery, which is to meet at [place of meeting] on the [date]. The meeting for reception will be held at [time], at [place of meeting].

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 14 – Declaring a Pulpit Vacant

The pastor of [name of the congregation] Presbytery presented his resignation to [the name of the presbytery] at its meeting at [place of meeting] on the [date]. The resignation was accepted, to take effect on the [date], and the pastoral relationship was dissolved. May the Lord guide the congregation to the choice of another under-shepherd.

(This form shall also contain the presbytery’s authorization and counsel regarding pulpit supply, administration of the sacraments, and the moderation of a call.)

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 15 – License to Preach

This is to certify that [name of the one to be certified] has been examined and approved by the [name of the presbytery] Presbytery of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada to be a student for the ministry of the gospel. He is granted permission to preach the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ. He may not administer the sacraments, perform marriages, or pronounce the benediction. This license shall be for a term of five years.

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 16 – License to Receive a Call.

This is to certify that [name of the one to be certified] has been examined and approved by the [name of the presbytery] Presbytery of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada to be a candidate eligible for a call as a pastor in the Church. This license is for a term of two years and will be reviewed thereafter.

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 17 – Pastor/Teacher Credentials

Certificate of Pastor/Teacher Credentials in the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada

Name: [last name], [first name] [second name]

Date of Birth: [date]

Citizenship: [country of citizenship]

Baptized on [date] in the [name of congregation] congregation.

Profession of Faith on [date] in the [name of congregation] congregation.

Education Institutions attended: [list name, years of attendance and diploma/degree obtained for each education institution beyond high school]

Record of Service:

  1. Taken under care as a student of theology: [name of the presbytery] Presbytery – [date]
  2. Certificate to Preach[name of the presbytery] Presbytery – [date]
  3. Certificate of Licensure: [name of the presbytery] Presbytery – [date]
  4. Ordination: [name of the presbytery] Presbytery – [date]
  5. Other service in the Church and other denomination(s).

Installed in [name of congregation] – [date]

Released from congregation: [name of congregation] – [date]

Installed in [name of board/presbytery] – [date]

Released from [name of board/presbytery] – [date]

Other: [disciplinary actions, restorations, etc.]

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 18 – Edict for the Ordination and Installation of a Licentiate

The [name of the presbytery] Presbytery has received a call made by the [name and location of the congregation] upon [full name of the one called] to be their pastor/teacher and has sustained it as a regular Gospel call. He has signified his intention to accept the call. Notice is hereby given that the [date], has been fixed as the time for his ordination and/or installation, with certification that the presbytery will proceed in the same, unless some valid objection(s) be offered to the presbytery, which is to meet at [place of meeting] on [date]. The meeting for the ordination and/or installation will be held at [time] a.m./p.m., at [place of meeting].

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 19 – Edict for the Installation of a Pastor/Teacher

The [name of the presbytery] Presbytery has received a call made by the [name and location of the congregation] upon [full name of the one called] to be their pastor/teacher and has sustained it as a regular Gospel call. He has signified his intention to accept the call. Notice is hereby given that the [date], has been fixed as the time for his ordination and/or installation, with certification that the presbytery will proceed in the same, unless some valid objection(s) be offered to the presbytery, which is to meet at [place of meeting] on [date]. The meeting for the ordination and/or installation will be held at [time] a.m./p.m., at [place of meeting].

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 20 – Certificate of Ordination and/or Certificate of Installation

The [name of the presbytery] Presbytery hereby certifies that [full name of the pastor/teacher] has been ordained/installed as pastor/teacher of [name and location of the congregation] at a meeting of the presbytery held at [time] a.m./p.m., at [place of meeting].

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 21 – Transfer of a Call from One Presbytery to Another

This call, made by [name and location of the congregation] upon [full name of the one called] on the [date], was made in accordance with the law and order of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada and has been sustained by the [name of the presbytery] Presbytery as a regular Gospel call. It is hereby transferred to [name of the presbytery] Presbytery, of which [full name of the one called] is a member, for presentation.

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 22 – Certificate of Transfer of a Pastor/Teacher from One Presbytery to Another

This certifies that [full name of the pastor/teacher] has, until this date, been a pastor/teacher under the oversight of the [name of the presbytery] Presbytery of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada and is hereby certified to the [name of the presbytery] Presbytery at his own request. His credentials are in order and are attached to this certificate.

By order of the Presbytery, this [date]

Clerk of the Presbytery: [signature]

Moderator of the Presbytery: [signature]

Form 23 – Bequest

I do give and bequeath to the Trustees of the highest court of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada, its successors and assigns forever, $[amount] to be credited to:

  1. The current account of the following funds: [?]
  2. The endowment of the following funds or institutions: [?]
  3. Funds functioning as endowments, as follows: [?]
  4. To be distributed according to the judgment of the synod: [?]

(Note: A will should be witnessed by at least three persons, all of whom see the signing by the one making the will and by each other. In case of doubt, secure legal advice.)

I do give and bequeath to the Trustees of the highest court of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada, its successors and assigns forever, all that certain piece of land situated in [location], the proceeds from the same to be devoted to: (Use list of plans above, or others as desired.)

Church Censure Forms

Form 24 – Charge of Sin

To the session of the Reformed Presbyterian congregation of [name of congregation]. Your informant respectfully states that [name of one charged], a member of your congregation, is believed to be guilty of a serious sin, contrary to the Word of God and to the profession of the Reformed Presbyterian Church, in that [he/she] on or about [date], did [charge of sin], and that [he/she] ought to be proceeded against by your court to determine whether or not the charge is true.

Date: [date]

Name: [name of accuser]

List of witnesses: [list all]

List of material offered in evidence:  [list all]

Form 25 – Accusation of Sin

Whereas a Charge of Sin has been brought against you, a copy of which is attached: and whereas the charge (or parts thereof) appear credible and therefore require action by this court: and whereas [charge of sin] is a serious sin, contrary to the Word of God and to the position taken by the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and you, [name of one charged] are charged with this offence, in that on or about [date], at [place] you did [action]. Resolved, that if this charge is found relevant and proved against you, you ought to be disciplined by this court of Christ’s Church.

Clerk of the Court: [signature]; Moderator of the Court: [signature]

List of witnesses:  [list all]

List of material offered in evidence:  [list all]

Form 26 – Summons to the Accused Accompanying a Charge

By order of the Court of [type of court], you, [name of accused] are summoned to appear and to answer to the charge, at [location of meeting] on [date of meeting] and to bring any witnesses you may have.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 27 – Summons to a Witness

You, [name of witness], are hereby summoned to appear before the Court of [type of Court] on [date of meeting] to give testimony in the case of [name of accused].

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 28 – Oath of a Witness

Do you swear by the Living God (or affirm) that you will tell the truth, all the truth, and nothing but the truth, as far as you know it, in the case now under trial, as you shall answer to God in the Judgment? Answer: I do.

Form 29 – Pronouncement of Innocence

Whereas you, [name of accused], have been found not guilty by this court of Christ’s Church, the decision of the Court is that you are not deserving of censure and the charge against you is dismissed. Now, therefore, for your own spiritual good and for the peace and purity of the Church, we commend you to the fellowship of the Church.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 30 – Pronouncement of Guilt

Whereas you, [name of accused], have been found guilty by this court of Christ’s Church, the decision of the Court is that you are deserving of the censure of [provide summary]. Now, therefore, for your own spiritual good and for the peace and purity of the Church, receive the pronouncement of this censure.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 31 – Oath of Purgation

I, [name of accused] now on trial before the Court of [type of court] for the sin of [name of sin] charged against me, for the ending of such process, and giving satisfaction to the Church of Christ, do most solemnly declare before God and this court that I am innocent and free of this sin, and hereby call the living God, the Judge and Avenger of all falsehood, to be judge and witness against me in this matter if I be guilty, as I shall answer to him in the Judgment.

Signature: [signature of accused]

Date: [date]

Form 32 – Admonition

You, [name], have brought reproach upon Christ and are in danger of drifting further away from the Lord. This court of Christ’s Church admonishes you to put away your sin, to watch and pray, and to walk faithfully with Christ.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 33 – Rebuke

You, [name], by your continued neglect of your Christian duty and by the sin of [name of sin], have brought reproach upon yourself, and have given occasion to the enemies of the Lord to mock and curse. This court of Christ’s Church sadly and solemnly judges and rebukes you for your sin. You are commanded to give evidence of sincere repentance and to be more watchful, studying to know and to do the will of God.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 34 – Suspension from the Lord’s Supper

You, [name], have been found guilty of the sin of [name of sin]. This court, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, sadly and solemnly suspends you from the privileges of Church membership, including participation in the sacraments, until you have given satisfactory evidence of true repentance and have been restored to good standing by the Reformed Presbyterian Church of Canada.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 35 – Suspension of an Officer

You, [name], have been proven guilty of the sin of [name of sin], and therefore deserve the penalty of suspension from your office in the Church. In the name of Jesus Christ, this court of his Church, suspends you from the office of [name of office], and forbids you to perform any of the duties belonging to it. This censure shall continue in effect until you have given this court satisfactory evidence of true repentance.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 36 – Deposition of an Officer

You, [name], have been proven guilty of the sin of [name of sin], and therefore deserve the penalty of deposition from your office in the Church. In the name of Jesus Christ, this court of Christ’s Church deposes you from the office of [name of office] and declares your relationship to the congregation in this capacity to be dissolved. You are forbidden to exercise any of the powers or duties of this office anywhere in Christ’s Church. It is our sincere hope and prayer that you will repent of your sin for the glory of Christ and the wellbeing of your soul.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 37 – Excommunication

You, [name], have been found guilty of the sin of [name of sin], a sin deserving of the extreme penalty of excommunication, yet you continue obstinate and give no evidence of repentance although efforts have been made to restore you. Now, therefore, this court, constituted in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and acting under his authority, hereby excommunicates you, removing you from the membership of the Church, outside of which there is no ordinary possibility of salvation. It is our sincere desire that you will repent and turn to the Lord that you might be forgiven and restored to the body of Christ. May God have mercy upon you by awakening you to repentance and bringing you to righteousness, so that you may be among the redeemed in the Day of the Lord Jesus.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 38 – Restoration of Suspension

You, [name], having been suspended from the Lord’s Supper and privileges of communicant membership because of sinful conduct, and having now given very evident proofs of sincere repentance, the [type of court] in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ, as a Court constituted by his authority, hereby absolves you from the censure of suspension given against you, and grants you access once again to the Lord’s Supper and privileges of communicant membership.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Form 39 – Restoration of Deposed or Excommunicated Persons

You, [name], having been [deposed/excommunicated] because of sinful conduct, and having now given very evident proofs of sincere repentance, the [type of court] in the Name of the Lord Jesus Christ, as a Court constituted by his authority, hereby absolves you from the censure of [type of censure], given against you, and restores you to the membership of the Church, and to the fellowship of the Christian sacraments.

By order of the Court, this: [date]

Clerk of the Court: [signature]

Moderator of the Court: [signature]

Note: In the case of deposition, the statement as to restoration should fit the penalty imposed.

 Subject Index[2352]

To be added.

 Bible References[2353]

To be added.


[1] Refer to the Statement Concerning Subscription for exceptions and clarifications to the Westminster Confession of Faith.

[2] Note: spelling has been modernized. For example, words with ‘th’ endings have been changed to have ‘s’ endings.

[3] Romans 2:14-15; Romans 1:19-20; Psalm 19:1-3; Romans 1:32 with Romans 2:1.

[4] 1 Corinthians 1:21; 1 Corinthians 2:13-14.

[5] Hebrews 1:1.

[6] Proverbs 22:19-21; Luke 1:3-4; Romans 15:4; Matthew 4:4, 7, 10; Isaiah 8:19-20.

[7] 2 Timothy 3:15; 2 Peter 1:19.

[8] Hebrews 1:1-2.

[9] Luke 16:29, 31; Ephesians 2:20; Revelation 22:18-19; 2 Timothy 3:16.

[10] Luke 24:27, 44; Romans 3:2; 2 Peter 1:21.

[11] 2 Peter 1:19, 21; 2 Timothy 3:16; 1 John 5:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:13.

[12] 1 Timothy 3:15.

[13] 1 John 2:20, 27; John 16:13-14; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 11-12; Isaiah 59:21.

[14] 2 Timothy 3:15-17; Galatians 1:8-9; 2 Thessalonians 2:2.

[15] John 6:45; 1 Corinthians 2:9-12.

[16] 1 Corinthians 11:13-14; 1 Corinthians 14:26, 40.

[17] 2 Peter 3:16.

[18] Psalm 119:105, 130.

[19] Matthew 5:18.

[20] Isaiah 8:20 ,Acts 15:15; John 5:39, 46.

[21] John 5:39.

[22] 1 Corinthians 14:6, 9, 11-12, 24, 27-28.

[23] Colossians 3:16.

[24] Romans 15:4.

[25] 2 Peter 1:20-21; Acts 15:15-16.

[26] Matthew 22:29, 31; Ephesians 2:20 with Acts 28:25.

[27] Deuteronomy 6:4; 1 Corinthians 8:4, 6.

[28] 1 Thessalonians 1:9; Jeremiah 10:10.

[29] Job 11:7-9; Job 26:14.

[30] John 4:24.

[31] 1 Timothy 1:17.

[32] Deuteronomy 4:15-16; John 4:24 with Luke 24:39.

[33] Acts 14:11, 15.

[34] James 1:17; Malachi 3:6.

[35] 1 Kings 8:27; Jeremiah 23:23-24.

[36] Psalm 90:2; 1 Timothy 1:17.

[37] Psalm 145:3.

[38] Genesis 17:1; Revelation 4:8.

[39] Romans 16:27.

[40] Isaiah 6:3; Revelation 4:8.

[41] Psalm 115:3.

[42] Exodus 3:14.

[43] Ephesians 1:11.

[44] Proverbs 16:4; Romans 11:36.

[45] 1 John 4:8, 16.

[46] Exodus 34:6-7.

[47] Hebrews 11:6.

[48] Nehemiah 9:32-33.

[49] Psalm 5:5-6.

[50] Nahum 1:2-3; Exodus 34:7.

[51] John 5:26.

[52] Acts 7:2.

[53] Psalm 119:68.

[54] 1 Timothy 6:15; Romans 9:5.

[55] Acts 17:24-25.

[56] Job 22:2-3.

[57] Rom 11:36.

[58] Revelation 4:11; 1 Timothy 6:15; Daniel 4:25, 35.

[59] Hebrews 4:13.

[60] Romans 11:33-34; Psalm 147:5.

[61] Acts 15:18; Ezekiel 11:5.

[62] Psalm 145:17; Romans 7:12.

[63] Revelation 5:12-14.

[64] 1 John 5:7; Matthew 3:16-17; Matthew 28:19; 2 Corinthians 13:14.

[65] John 1:14, 18.

[66] John 15:26; Galatians 4:6.

[67] Ephesians 1:11; Romans 11:33; Hebrews 6:17; Romans 9:15, 18.

[68] James 1:13, 17; 1 John 1:5.

[69] Acts 2:23; Matthew 17:12; Acts 4:27-28; John 19:11; Proverbs 16:33.

[70] Acts 15:18; 1 Samuel 23:11-12; Matthew 11:21, 23.

[71] Romans 9:11, 13, 16, 18.

[72] 1 Timothy 5:21; Matthew 25:41.

[73] Romans 9:22, 23; Ephesians 1:5-6; Proverbs 16:4.

[74] 2 Timothy 2:19; John 13:18.

[75] Ephesians 1:4, 9, 11; Romans 8:30; 2 Timothy 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:9.

[76] Romans 9:11, 13, 16; Ephesians 1:4, 9.

[77] Ephesians 1:6, 12.

[78] 1 Peter 1:2; Ephesians 1:4-5; Ephesians 2:10; 2 Thessalonians 2:13.

[79] 1 Thessalonians 5:9-10; Titus 2:14.

[80] Romans 8:30; Ephesians 1:5; 2 Thessalonians 2:13.

[81] 1 Peter 1:5.

[82] John 17:9; Romans 8:28 to the end, John 6:64-65; John 10:26; John 8:47; 1 John 2:19.

[83] Matthew 11:25-26; Romans 9:17, 18, 21-22; 2 Timothy 2:19-20; Jude 4; 1 Peter 2:8.

[84] Romans 9:20; Romans 11:33; Deuteronomy 29:29.

[85] 2 Peter 1:10.

[86] Ephesians 1:6; Romans 11:33.

[87] Romans 11:5-6, 20; 2 Peter 1:10; Romans 8:33; Luke 10:20.

[88] Hebrews 1:2; John 1:2-3; Genesis 1:2; Job 26:13; Job 33:4.

[89] Romans 1:20; Jeremiah 10:12; Psalm 104:24; Psalm 33:5-6.

[90] Genesis 1 chap. Hebrews 11:3; Colossians 1:16; Acts 17:24.

[91] Refer to the Statement Concerning Subscription (Subscription Clarifications).

[92] Genesis 1:27.

[93] Genesis 2:7 with Ecclesiastes 12:7 & Luke 23:43 and Matthew 10:28.

[94] Genesis 1:26; Colossians 3:10; Ephesians 4:24.

[95] Romans 2:14-15.

[96] Ecclesiastes 7:29.

[97] Genesis 3:6; Ecclesiastes 7:29.

[98] Genesis 2:17; Genesis 3:8-11, 23.

[99] Genesis 1:26, 28.

[100] Hebrews 1:3.

[101] Daniel 4:34-35; Psalm 135:6; Acts 17:25-26, 28; Job 38 to 41 chapters.

[102] Matthew 10:29, 30-31.

[103] Proverbs 15:3; Psalm 104:24; Psalm 145:17.

[104] Acts 15:18; Psalm 94:8, 11.

[105] Ephesians 1:11; Psalm 33:10-11.

[106] Isaiah 63:14; Ephesians 3:10; Romans 9:17; Genesis 45:7; Psalm 145:7.

[107] Acts 2:23.

[108] Genesis 8:22; Jeremiah 31:35; Exodus 21:13 with Deuteronomy 19:5; 1 Kings 22:28, 34; Isaiah 10:6-7.

[109] Acts 27:31, 44; Isaiah 55:10-11; Hosea 2:21-22.

[110] Hosea 1:7; Matthew 4:4; Job 34:20.

[111] Romans 4:19-21.

[112] 2 Kings 6:6; Daniel 3:27.

[113] Romans 11:32-34; 2 Samuel 24:1 with 1 Chronicles 21:1; 1 Kings 22:22-23; 1 Chronicles 10:4, 13-14; 2 Samuel 16:10; Acts 2:23; Acts 4:27-28.

[114] Acts 14:16.

[115] Psalm 76:10; 2 Kings 19:28.

[116] Genesis 50:20; Isaiah 10:6-7, 12.

[117] James 1:13-14, 17; 1 John 2:16; Psalm 50:21.

[118] 2 Chronicles 32:25-26, 31; 2 Samuel 24:1.

[119] 2 Corinthians 12:7-9; Psalm 73 throughout, Psalm 77:1-12; Mark 14:66 to the end, with John 21:15-17.

[120] Romans 1:24, 26, 28; Romans 11:7-8.

[121] Deuteronomy 29:4.

[122] Matthew 13:12; Matthew 25:29.

[123] Deuteronomy 2:30; 2 Kings 8:12-13.

[124] Psalm 81:11-12; 2 Thessalonians 2:10-12.

[125] Exodus 7:3 with Exodus 8:15, 32; 2 Corinthians 2:15-16; Isaiah 8:14; 1 Peter 2:7-8; Isaiah 6:9-10 with Acts 28:26-27.

[126] 1 Timothy 4:10; Amos 9:8-9; Romans 8:28; Isaiah 43:3-5, 14.

[127] Genesis 3:13; 2 Corinthians 11:3.

[128] Romans 11:32.

[129] Genesis 3:6-8; Ecclesiastes 7:29; Romans 3:23.

[130] Genesis 2:17; Ephesians 2:1.

[131] Titus 1:15; Genesis 6:5; Jeremiah 17:9; Romans 3:10-19.

[132] Genesis 1:27-28 and Genesis 2:16-17 and Acts 17:26 with Romans 5:12, 15-19 and 1 Corinthians 15:21-22, 49.

[133] Psalm 51:5; Genesis 5:3; Job 14:4; Job 15:14.

[134] Romans 5:6; Romans 8:7; Romans 7:18; Colossians 1:21.

[135] Genesis 6:5; Genesis 8:21; Romans 3:10-12.

[136] James 1:14-15; Ephesians 2:2-3; Matthew 15:19.

[137] 1 John 1:8, 10; Romans 7:14, 17-18, 23; James 3:2; Proverbs 20:9; Ecclesiastes 7:20.

[138] Romans 7:5, 7-8, 25; Galatians 5:17.

[139] 1 John 3:4.

[140] Romans 2:15; Romans 3:9, 19.

[141] Ephesians 2:3.

[142] Galatians 3:10.

[143] Romans 6:23.

[144] Ephesians 4:18.

[145] Romans 8:20; Lamentations 3:39.

[146] Matthew 25:41; 2 Thessalonians 1:9.

[147] Isaiah 40:13-17; Job 9:32-33; 1 Samuel 2:25; Psalm 113:5-6; Psalm 100:2-3; Job 22:2-3; Job 35:7-8; Luke 17:10; Acts 17:24-25.

[148] Galatians 3:12.

[149] Romans 5:12-20; Romans 10:5.

[150] Genesis 2:17; Galatians 3:10.

[151] Galatians 3:21; Romans 3:20-21; Romans 8:3; Genesis 3:15; Isaiah 42:6.

[152] Mark 16:15-16; John 3:16; Romans 10:6, 9; Galatians 3:11.

[153] Ezekiel 36:26-27; John 6:44-45.

[154] Hebrews 9:15-17; Hebrews 7:22; Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25.

[155] 2 Corinthians 3:6-9.

[156] Hebrews 8-10 chapters, Romans 4:11; Colossians 2:11-12; 1 Corinthians 5:7.

[157] 1 Corinthians 10:1-4; Hebrews 11:13; John 8:56.

[158] Galatians 3:7-9, 14.

[159] Colossians 2:17.

[160] Matthew 28:19-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25.

[161] Hebrews 12:22 to 28; Jeremiah 31:33-34.

[162] Matthew 28:19; Ephesians 2:15-19.

[163] Luke 22:20.

[164] Galatians 3:14, 16; Romans 3:21-23, 30; Psalm 32:1 with Romans 4:3, 6, 16-17, 23-24; Hebrews 13:8; Acts 15:11.

[165] Isaiah 42:1; 1 Peter 1:19-20; John 3:16; 1 Timothy 2:5.

[166] Acts 3:22.

[167] Hebrews 5:5-6.

[168] Psalm 2:6; Luke 1:33.

[169] Ephesians 5:23.

[170] Hebrews 1:2.

[171] Acts 17:31.

[172] John 17:6; Psalm 22:30; Isaiah 53:10.

[173] 1 Timothy 2:6; Isaiah 55:4-5; 1 Corinthians 1:30.

[174] John 1:1, 14; 1 John 5:20; Philippians 2:6; Galatians 4:4.

[175] Hebrews 2:14, 16-17; Hebrews 4:15.

[176] Luke 1:27, 31, 35; Galatians 4:4.

[177] Luke 1:35; Colossians 2:9; Romans 9:5; 1 Peter 3:18; 1 Timothy 3:16.

[178] Romans 1:3-4; 1 Timothy 2:5.

[179] Psalm 45:7; John 3:34.

[180] Colossians 2:3.

[181] Colossians 1:19.

[182] Hebrews 7:26; John 1:14.

[183] Acts 10:38; Hebrews 12:24; Hebrews 7:22.

[184] Hebrews 5:4-5.

[185] John 5:22, 27; Matthew 28:18; Acts 2:36.

[186] Psalm 40:7-8 with Hebrews 10:5-10; John 10:18; Philippians 2:8.

[187] Galatians 4:4.

[188] Matthew 3:15; Matthew 5:17.

[189] Matthew 26:37-38; Luke 22:44; Matthew 27:46.

[190] Matthew Chapters 26-27.

[191] Philippians 2:8.

[192] Acts. 2:23-24, 27; Acts 13:37; Romans 6:9.

[193] 1 Corinthians 15:3-4.

[194] John 20:25, 27.

[195] Mark 16:19.

[196] Romans 8:34; Hebrews 9:24; Hebrews 7:25.

[197] Romans 14:9-10; Acts 1:11; Acts 10:42; Matthew 13:40, 41-42; Jude 6; 2 Peter 2:4.

[198] Romans 5:19; Hebrews 9:14, 16; Hebrews 10:14; Ephesians 5:2; Romans 3:25-26.

[199] Daniel 9:24, 26; Colossians 1:19-20; Ephesians 1:11, 14; John 17:2; Hebrews 9:12, 15.

[200] Galatians 4:4-5; Genesis 3:15; Revelation 13:8; Hebrews 13:8.

[201] Hebrews 9:14; 1 Peter 3:18.

[202] Acts 20:28; John 3:13; 1 John 3:16.

[203] John 6:37, 39; John 10:15-16.

[204] 1 John 2:1-2; Romans 8:34.

[205] John 15:13, 15; Ephesians 1:7-9; John 17:6.

[206] John 14:26; Hebrews 12:2; 2 Corinthians 4:13; Romans 8:9, 14; Romans 15:18-19; John 17:17.

[207] Psalm 110:1; 1 Corinthians 15:25-26; Malachi 4:2-3; Colossians 2:15.

[208] Matthew 17:12; James 1:14; Deuteronomy 30:19.

[209] Ecclesiastes 7:2; Genesis 1:26.

[210] Genesis 2:16-17; Genesis 3:6.

[211] Romans 5:6; Romans 8:7; John 15:5.

[212] Romans 3:10, 12.

[213] Ephesians 2:1, 5; Colossians 2:13.

[214] John 6:44, 65; Ephesians 2:2-5; 1 Corinthians 2:14; Titus 3:3-5.

[215] Colossians 1:13; John 8:34, 36.

[216] Philippians 2:13; Romans 6:18, 22.

[217] Galatians 5:17; Romans 7:15, 18-19, 21, 23.

[218] Ephesians 4:13; Hebrews 12:23; 1 John 3:2; Jude 24.

[219] Romans 8:30; Romans 11:7; Ephesians 1:10-11.

[220] 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14; 2 Corinthians 3:3, 6.

[221] Romans 8:2; Ephesians 2:1-5; 2 Timothy 1:9-10.

[222] Acts 26:18; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 12; Ephesians 1:17-18.

[223] Ezekiel 36:26.

[224] Ezekiel 11:19; Philippians 2:13; Deuteronomy 30:6; Ezekiel 36:27.

[225] Ephesians 1:19; John 6:44-45.

[226] Song of Solomon 1:4; Psalm 110:3; John 6:37; Romans 6:16-18.

[227] 2 Timothy 1:9; Titus 3:4-5; Ephesians 2:4-5, 8-9; Romans 9:11.

[228] 1 Corinthians 2:14; Romans 8:7; Ephesians 2:5.

[229] Ezekiel 36:27; John 5:25; John 6:37.

[230] Luke 18:15-16 and Acts 2:38-39; John 3:3, 5; 1 John 5:12; and Romans 8:9 compared.

[231] John 3:8.

[232] 1 John 5:12; Acts 4:12.

[233] Matthew 22:14.

[234] Matthew 7:22; Matthew 13:20-21; Hebrews 6:4-5.

[235] John 6:64-66; John 8:24.

[236] Acts 4:12; Ephesians 2:12; John 4:22; John 14:6; John 17:3.

[237] 2 John 9-11; 1 Corinthians 16:22; Galatians 1:6-8.

[238] Romans 3:24; Romans 8:30.

[239] Romans 3:22, 24-25, 27-28; Romans 4:5-8; 2 Corinthians 5:19, 21; Titus 3:5, 7; Ephesians 1:7; Jeremiah 23:6; 1 Corinthians 1:30-31; Romans 5:17-19.

[240] Acts 10:43; Galatians 2:16; Philippians 3:19; Acts 13:38-39; Ephesians 2:7-8.

[241] John 1:12; Romans 3:28; Romans 5:1.

[242] James 2:17, 22, 26; Galatians 5:6.

[243] Romans 5:8-10, 19; 1 Timothy 2:5-6; Hebrews 10:10, 14; Daniel 9:24, 26; Isaiah 53:4-6, 10-12.

[244] Romans 8:32.

[245] 2 Corinthians 5:21; Matthew 3:17; Ephesians 5:2.

[246] Romans 3:24; Ephesians 1:7.

[247] Romans 3:26; Ephesians 2:7.

[248] Galatians 3:8; 1 Peter 1:2, 19-20; Romans 8:30.

[249] Galatians 4:4; 1 Timothy 2:6; Romans 4:25.

[250] Colossians 1:21-22; Galatians 2:16; Titus 3:3-7.

[251] Matthew 6:12; 1 John 1:7, 9; 1 John 2:1-2.

[252] Luke 22:32; John 10:28; Hebrews 10:14.

[253] Psalm 89:31-33; Psalm 51:7-12; Psalm 32:5; Matthew 26:75; 1 Corinthians 11:30, 32; Luke 1:20.

[254] Galatians 3:9, 13-14; Romans 4:22-24; Hebrews 13:8.

[255] Ephesians 1:5.

[256] Galatians 4:4-5; Romans 8:17; John 1:12.

[257] Jeremiah 14:9; 2 Corinthians 6:18; Revelation 3:12.

[258] Romans 8:15.

[259] Ephesians 3:12; Romans 5:2.

[260] Galatians 4:6.

[261] Psalm 103:13.

[262] Proverbs 14:26.

[263] Matthew 6:30, 32; 1 Peter 5:7.

[264] Hebrews 12:6.

[265] Lamentations 3:31.

[266] Ephesians 4:30.

[267] Hebrews 6:12.

[268] 1 Peter 1:3-4; Hebrews 1:14.

[269] 1 Corinthians 6:11; Acts 20:32; Philippians 3:10; Romans 6:5-6.

[270] John 17:17; Ephesians 5:26; 2 Thessalonians 2:13.

[271] Romans 6:6, 14.

[272] Galatians 5:24; Romans 8:13.

[273] Colossians 1:11; Ephesians 3:16-19.

[274] 2 Corinthians 7:1; Hebrews 12:14.

[275] 1 Thessalonians 5:23.

[276] 1 John 1:10; Romans 7:18, 23; Philippians 3:12.

[277] Galatians 5:17; 1 Peter 2:11.

[278] Romans 7:23.

[279] Romans 6:14; 1 John 5:4; Ephesians 4:15-16.

[280] 2 Peter 3:18; 2 Corinthians 3:18.

[281] 2 Corinthians 7:1.

[282] Hebrews 10:39.

[283] 2 Corinthians 4:13; Ephesians 1:17-19; Ephesians 2:8.

[284] Romans 10:14, 17.

[285] 1 Peter 2:2; Acts 20:32; Romans 4:11; Luke 17:5; Romans 1:16-17.

[286] John 4:42; 1 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 John 5:10; Acts 24:14.

[287] Romans 16:26.

[288] Isaiah 66:2.

[289] Hebrews 11:13; 1 Timothy 4:8.

[290] John 1:12; Acts 16:31; Galatians 2:20; Acts 15:11.

[291] Hebrews 5:13-14; Romans 4:19-20; Matthew 6:30; Matthew 8:10.

[292] Luke 22:31-32; Ephesians 6:16; 1 John 5:4-5.

[293] Hebrews 6:11-12; Hebrews 10:22; Colossians 2:2.

[294] Hebrews 12:2.

[295] Zechariah 12:10; Acts 11:18.

[296] Luke 24:47; Mark 1:15; Acts 20:21.

[297] Ezekiel 18:30-31; Ezekiel 36:31; Isaiah 30:22; Psalm 51:4; Jeremiah 31:18-19; Joel 2:12-13; Amos 5:15; Psalm 119:128; 2 Corinthians 7:11.

[298] Psalm 119:6, 59, 106; Luke 1:6; 2 Kings 23:25.

[299] Ezekiel 36:31-32; Ezekiel 16:61-63.

[300] Hosea 14:2, 4; Romans 3:24; Ephesians 1:7.

[301] Luke 13:3, 5; Acts 17:30-31.

[302] Romans 6:23; Romans 5:12; Matthew 12:36.

[303] Isaiah 55:7; Romans 8:1; Isaiah 1:16, 18.

[304] Psalm 19:13; Luke 19:8; 1 Timothy 1:13, 15.

[305] Psalm 51:4-5, 7, 9, 14; Psalm 32:5-6.

[306] Proverbs 28:13; 1 John 1:9.

[307] James 5:16; Luke 17:3-4; Joshua 7:19; Psalm 51.

[308] 2 Corinthians 2:8.

[309] Micah 6:8; Romans 12:2; Hebrews 13:21.

[310] Matthew 15:9; Isaiah 29:13; 1 Peter 1:18; Romans 10:2; John 16:2; 1 Samuel 15:21-23.

[311] James 2:18, 22.

[312] Psalm 116:12-13; 1 Peter 2:9.

[313] 1 John 2:3, 5; 2 Peter 1:5-10.

[314] 2 Corinthians 9:2; Matthew 5:16.

[315] Titus 2:5, 9-12; 1 Timothy 6:1.

[316] 1 Peter 2:15.

[317] 1 Peter 2:12; Philippians 1:11; John 15:8.

[318] Ephesians 2:10.

[319] Romans 6:22.

[320] John 15:4-5; Ezekiel 36:26-27.

[321] Philippians 2:13; Philippians 4:13; 2 Corinthians 3:5.

[322] Philippians 2:12; Hebrews 6:11-12; 2 Peter 1:3, 5, 10-11; Isaiah 64:7; 2 Timothy 1:6; Acts 26:6-7; Jude 20-21.

[323] Luke 17:10; Nehemiah 13:22; Job 9:2-3; Galatians 5:17.

[324] Romans 3:20; Romans 4:2, 4, 6; Ephesians 2:8-9; Titus 3:5-7; Romans 8:18; Psalm 16:2; Job 22:2-3; Job 35:7-8.

[325] Luke 17:10.

[326] Galatians 5:22-23.

[327] Isaiah 64:6; Galatians 5:17; Romans 7:15, 18; Psalm 143:2; Psalm 130:3.

[328] Ephesians 1:6; 1 Peter 2:5; Exodus 28:38; Genesis 4:4 with Hebrews 11:4.

[329] Job 9:20; Psalm 143:2.

[330] Hebrews 13:20-21; 2 Corinthians 8:12; Hebrews 6:10; Matthew 25:21, 23.

[331] 2 Kings 10:30-31; 1 Kings 21:27, 29; Philippians 1:15-16, 18.

[332] Genesis 4:5 with Hebrews 11:4, 6.

[333] 1 Corinthians 13:3; Isaiah 1:12.

[334] Matthew 6:2, 5, 16.

[335] Haggai 2:14; Titus 1:15; Amos 5:22-23; Hosea 1:4; Romans 9:16; Titus 3:5.

[336] Psalm 14:4; Psalm 36:3; Job 21:14-15; Matthew 25:41-43, 45; Matthew 23:23.

[337] Philippians 1:6; 2 Peter 1:10; John 10:28-29; 1 John 3:9; 1 Peter 1:5, 9.

[338] 2 Timothy 2:18-19; Jeremiah 31:3.

[339] Hebrews 10:10, 14; Hebrews 13:20-21; Hebrews 9:12-15; Romans 8:33 to the end, John 17:11, 24; Luke 22:32; Hebrews 7:25.

[340] John 14:16-17; 1 John 2:27; 1 John 3:9.

[341] Jeremiah 32:40.

[342] John 10:28; 2 Thessalonians 3:3; 1 John 2:19.

[343] Matthew 26:70, 72, 74.

[344] Psalm 51 title and 14.

[345] Isaiah 64:5, 7, 9; 2 Samuel 11:27.

[346] Ephesians 4:30.

[347] Psalm 51:8, 10, 12; Revelation 2:4; Song of Solomon 5:2-4, 6.

[348] Isaiah 63:17; Mark 6:52; Mark 16:14.

[349] Psalm 32:3-4; Psalm 51:8.

[350] 2 Samuel 12:14.

[351] Psalm 89:31-32; 1 Corinthians 11:32.

[352] Job 8:13-14; Micah 3:11; Deuteronomy 29:19; John 8:41.

[353] Matthew 7:22-23.

[354] 1 John 2:3; 1 John 3:14, 18-19, 21, 24; John 5:13.

[355] Romans 5:2, 5.

[356] Hebrews 6:11, 19.

[357] Hebrews 6:17-18.

[358] 2 Peter 1:4-5, 10-11; 1 John 2:3; 1 John 3:14; 2 Corinthians 1:12.

[359] Romans 8:15-16.

[360] Ephesians 1:13-14; Ephesians 4:30; 2 Corinthians 1:21-22.

[361] 1 John 5:13; Isaiah 50:10; Mark 9:24; Psalm 88; Psalm 77:1-12.

[362] 1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 John 4:13; Hebrews 6:11-12; Ephesians 3:17-19.

[363] 2 Peter 1:10.

[364] Romans 5:1-2, 5; Romans 14:17; Romans 15:13; Ephesians 1:3-4; Psalm 4:6-7; Psalm 119:32.

[365] 1 John 2:1-2; Romans 6:1-2; Titus 2:11-12, 14; 2 Corinthians 7:1; Romans 8:1, 12; 1 John 3:2-3; Psalm 130:4; 1 John 1:6-7.

[366] Song of Solomon 5:2-3, 6; Psalm 51:8, 12, 14; Ephesians 4:30-31; Psalm 77:1-10; Matthew 26:69-72; Psalm 31:22; Psalm 88; Isaiah 50:10.

[367] 1 John 3:9; Luke 22:32; Job 13:15; Psalm 73:15; Psalm 51:8, 12; Isaiah 50:10.

[368] Micah 7:7-9; Jeremiah 32:40; Isaiah 54:7-10; Psalm 22:1; Psalm 88.

[369] Genesis 1:26-27 with Genesis 2:17; Romans 2:14-15; Romans 10:5; Romans 5:12, 19; Galatians 3:10, 12; Ecclesiastes 7:29; Job 28:28.

[370] James 1:25; James 2:8, 10-12; Romans 13:8-9; Deuteronomy 5:32; Deuteronomy 10:4; Exodus 34:1.

[371] Matthew 22:37-40.

[372] Hebrews chap. 9; Hebrews 10:1; Galatians 4:1-3; Colossians 2:17.

[373] 1 Corinthians 5:7; 2 Corinthians 6:17; Jude 23.

[374] Colossians 2:14, 16-17; Daniel 9:27; Ephesians 2:15-16.

[375] Exodus chap. 21; Exodus 22:1-29; Genesis 49:10 with 1 Peter 2:13-14; Matthew 5:17 with Matthew 5:38-39; 1 Corinthians 9:8-10.

[376] Romans 13:8-10; Ephesians 6:2; 1 John 2:3-4, 7-8.

[377] James 2:10-11.

[378] Matthew 5:17-19; James 2:8; Romans 3:31.

[379] Romans 6:14; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 3:13; Galatians 4:4-5; Acts 13:39; Romans 8:1.

[380] Romans 7:12, 22, 25; Psalm 119:4-6; 1 Corinthians 7:19; Galatians 5:14, 16, 18-23.

[381] Romans 7:7; Romans 3:20.

[382] James 1:23-25; Romans 7:9, 14, 24.

[383] Galatians 3:24; Romans 7:24-25; Romans 8:3-4.

[384] James 2:11; Psalm 119:101, 104, 128.

[385] Ezra 9:13-14; Psalm 89:30-34.

[386] Leviticus 26:1-14 with 2 Corinthians 6:16; Ephesians 6:2-3; Psalm 37:11 with Matthew 5:5; Psalm 19:11.

[387] Galatians 2:16; Luke 17:10.

[388] Romans 6:12, 14; 1 Peter 3:8-12 with Psalm 34:12-16; Hebrews 12:28-29.

[389] Galatians 3:21.

[390] Ezekiel 36:27; Hebrews 8:10 with Jeremiah 31:33.

[391] Titus 2:14; 1 Thessalonians 1:10; Galatians 3:13.

[392] Galatians 1:4; Colossians 1:13; Acts 26:18; Romans 6:14.

[393] Romans 8:28; Psalm 119:71; 1 Corinthians 15:54-57; Romans 8:1.

[394] Romans 5:1-2.

[395] Romans 8:14-15; 1 John 4:18.

[396] Galatians 3:9, 14.

[397] Galatians 4:1-3, 6-7; Galatians 5:1; Acts 15:10-11.

[398] Hebrews 4:14, 16; Hebrews 10:19-22.

[399] John 7:38-39; 2 Corinthians 3:13, 17-18.

[400] James 4:12; Romans 14:4.

[401] Acts 4:19; Acts 5:29; 1 Corinthians 7:23; Matthew 23:8-10; 2 Corinthians 1:24; Matthew 15:9.

[402] Colossians 2:20, 22-23; Galatians 1:10; Galatians 2:4-5; Galatians 5:1.

[403] Romans 10:17; Romans 14:23; Isaiah 8:20; Acts 17:11; John 4:22; Hosea 5:11; Revelation 13:12, 16-17; Jeremiah 8:9.

[404] Galatians 5:13; 1 Peter 2:16; 2 Peter 2:19; John 8:34; Luke 1:74-75.

[405] Matthew 12:25; 1 Peter 2:13-14, 16; Romans 13:1-8; Hebrews 13:17.

[406] Romans 1:32 with 1 Corinthians 5:1, 5, 11, 13; 2 John 10-11 and 2 Thessalonians 3:14; 1 Timothy 6:3-5; Titus 1:10-11, 13; Titus 3:10 with Matthew 18:15-17; 1 Timothy 1:19-20; Revelation 2:2, 14-15, 20; Revelation 3:9.

[407] Deuteronomy 13:6-12; Romans 13:3-4 with 2 John 10-11; Ezra 7:23, 25-28; Revelation 17:12, 16-17; Nehemiah 13:15, 17, 21-22, 25, 30; 2 Kings 23:5-6, 9, 20-21; 2 Chronicles 34:33; 2 Chronicles 15:12-13, 16; Daniel 3:29; 1 Timothy 2:2; Isaiah 49:23; Zechariah 13:2, 3.

[408] Romans 1:20; Acts 17:24; Psalm 119:68; Jeremiah 10:7; Psalm 31:23; Psalm 18:3; Romans 10:12; Psalm 62:8; Joshua 24:14; Mark 12:33.

[409] Deuteronomy 12:32; Matthew 15:9; Acts 17:25; Matthew 4:9-10; Deuteronomy 4:15-20; Exodus 20:4-6; Colossians 2:23.

[410] Matthew 4:10 with John 5:23 and 2 Corinthians 13:14.

[411] Colossians 2:18; Revelation 19:10; Romans 1:25.

[412] John 14:6; 1 Timothy 2:5; Ephesians 2:18; Colossians 3:17.

[413] Philippians 4:6.

[414] Psalm 65:2.

[415] John 14:13-14; 1 Peter 2:5.

[416] Romans 8:26.

[417] 1 John 5:14.

[418] Psalm 47:7; Ecclesiastes 5:1-2; Hebrews 12:28; Genesis 18:27; James 5:16; James 1:6-7; Mark 11:24; Matthew 6:12, 14-15; Colossians 4:2; Ephesians 6:18.

[419] 1 Corinthians 14:14.

[420] 1 John 5:14.

[421] 1 Timothy 2:1-2; John 17:20; 2 Samuel 7:29; Ruth 4:12.

[422] 2 Samuel 12:21-23 with Luke 16:25-26; Revelation 14:13.

[423] 1 John 5:16.

[424] Acts 15:21; Revelation 1:3.

[425] 2 Timothy 4:2.

[426] James 1:22; Acts 10:33; Matthew 13:19; Hebrews 4:2; Isaiah 66:2.

[427] Colossians 3:16; Ephesians 5:19; James 5:13.

[428] Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23-29; Acts 2:42.

[429] Deuteronomy 6:13 with Nehemiah 10:29.

[430] Isaiah 19:21 with Ecclesiastes 5:4-5.

[431] Joel 2:12; Esther 4:16; Matthew 9:15; 1 Corinthians 7:5.

[432] Psalm 107; Esther 9:22.

[433] Hebrews 12:28.

[434] John 4:21.

[435] Malachi 1:11; 1 Timothy 2:8.

[436] John 4:23-24.

[437] Jeremiah 10:25; Deuteronomy 6:6-7; Job 1:5; 2 Samuel 6:18, 20; 1 Peter 3:7; Acts 10:2.

[438] Matthew 6:1.

[439] Matthew 6:6; Ephesians 6:18.

[440] Isaiah 56:6-7; Hebrews 10:25; Proverbs 1:20-21, 24; Proverbs 8:34; Acts 13:42; Luke 4:16; Acts 2:42.

[441] Exodus 20:8, 10-11; Isaiah 56:2, 4, 6-7.

[442] Genesis 2:2-3; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2; Acts 20:7.

[443] Revelation 1:10.

[444] Exodus 20:8, 10 with Matthew 5:17-18.

[445] Exodus 20:8; Exodus 16:23, 25-26, 29-30; Exodus 31:15-17; Isaiah 58:13; Nehemiah 13:15-19, 21-22.

[446] Isaiah 58:13; Matthew 12:1-13.

[447] Deuteronomy 10:20.

[448] Exodus 20:7; Leviticus 19:12; 2 Corinthians 1:23; 2 Chronicles 6:22-23.

[449] Deuteronomy 6:13.

[450] Exodus 20:7; Jeremiah 5:7; Matthew 5:34, 37; James 5:12.

[451] Hebrews 6:16; 2 Corinthians 1:23; Isaiah 65:16.

[452] I Kings 8:31; Nehemiah 13:25; Ezra 10:5.

[453] Exodus 20:7; Jeremiah 4:2.

[454] Genesis 24:2-3, 5-6, 8-9.

[455] Numbers 5:19, 21; Nehemiah 5:12; Exodus 22:7-11.

[456] Jeremiah 4:2; Psalm 24:4.

[457] 1 Samuel 25:22, 32-34; Psalm 15:4.

[458] Ezekiel 17:16, 18-19; Joshua 9:18-19 with 2 Samuel 21:1.

[459] Isaiah 19:21; Ecclesiastes 5:4-6; Psalm 61:8; Psalm 66:13-14.

[460] Psalm 76:11; Jeremiah 44:25-26.

[461] Deuteronomy 23:21-23; Psalm 50:14; Genesis 28:20-22; 1 Samuel 1:11; Psalm 66:13-14; Psalm 132:2-5.

[462] Acts 23:12, 14; Mark 6:26; Numbers 30:5, 8, 12-13.

[463] Matthew 19:11-12; 1 Corinthians 7:2, 9; Ephesians 4:28; 1 Peter 4:2; 1 Corinthians 7:23.

[464] Romans 13:1-4; 1 Peter 2:13-14.

[465] Proverbs 8:15-16; Romans 13:1, 2, 4.

[466] Psalm 2:10-12; 1 Timothy 2:2; Psalm 82:3-4; 2 Samuel 23:3; 1 Peter 2:13.

[467] Luke 3:14; Romans 13:4; Matthew 8:9-10; Acts 10:1-2; Revelation 17:14, 16.

[468] 2 Chronicles 26:18 with Matthew 18:17 and Matthew 16:19; 1 Corinthians 12:28-29; Ephesians 4:11-12; 1 Corinthians 4:1-2; Romans 10:15; Hebrews 5:4.

[469] Isaiah 49:23; Psalm 122:9; Ezra 7:23, 25-28; Leviticus 24:16; Deuteronomy 13:5-6, 12; 1 Kings 18:4; 1 Chronicles 13:1-9; 2 Kings 23:1-26; 2 Chronicles 34:33; 2 Chronicles 15:12-13.

[470] 2 Chronicles 19:8-11; 2 Chronicles 29; 2 Chronicles 30; Matthew 2:4-5.

[471] Refer to the Statement Concerning Subscription (Subscription Clarifications).

[472] 1 Timothy 2:1-2.

[473] 1 Peter 2:17.

[474] Romans 13:6-7.

[475] Romans 13:5; Titus 3:1.

[476] 1 Peter 2:13-14, 16.

[477] Romans 13:1; 1 Kings 2:35; Acts 25:9-11; 2 Peter 2:1, 10-11; Jude 8-11.

[478] 2 Thessalonians 2:4; Revelation 13:15-17.

[479] Genesis 2:24; Matthew 19:5-6; Proverbs 2:17.

[480] Genesis 2:18.

[481] Malachi 2:15.

[482] 1 Corinthians 7:2, 9.

[483] Hebrews 13:4; 1 Timothy 4:3; 1 Corinthians 7:36-38; Genesis 24:57-58.

[484] 1 Corinthians 7:39.

[485] Genesis 34:14; Exodus 34:16; Deuteronomy 7:3-4; I Kings 11:4; Nehemiah 13:25-26, 27; Malachi 2:11-12; 2 Corinthians 6:14.

[486] Leviticus 18; 1 Corinthians 5:1; Amos 2:7.

[487] Mark 6:18; Leviticus 18:24-28.

[488] Leviticus 20:19-21.

[489] Refer to the Statement Concerning Subscription (Subscription Exceptions).

[490] Matthew 1:18-20.

[491] Matthew 5:31-32.

[492] Matthew 19:9; Romans 7:2-3.

[493] Matthew 19:8-9; 1 Corinthians 7:15; Matthew 19:6.

[494] Deuteronomy 24:1-4.

[495] Ephesians 1:10, 22-23; Ephesians 5:23, 27, 32; Colossians 1:18.

[496] 1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 12:12-13; Psalm 2:8; Revelation 7:9; Romans 15:9, 10-12.

[497] 1 Corinthians 7:14; Acts 2:39; Ezekiel 16:20-21; Romans 11:16; Genesis 3:15; Genesis 17:7.

[498] Matthew 13:47; Isaiah 9:7.

[499] Ephesians 2:19; Ephesians 3:15.

[500] Acts 2:47.

[501] 1 Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 4:11-13; Matthew 28:19-20; Isaiah 59:21.

[502] Romans 11:3-4; Revelation 12:6, 14.

[503] Revelation 2; Revelation 3; 1 Corinthians 5:6-7.

[504] 1 Corinthians 13:12; Revelation 2; Revelation 3; Matthew 13:24-30, 47.

[505] Revelation 18:2; Romans 11:18-22.

[506] Matthew 16:18; Psalm 72:17; Psalm 102:28; Matthew 28:19-20.

[507] Colossians 1:18; Ephesians 1:22.

[508] Matthew 23:8-10; 2 Thessalonians 2:3-4, 8-9; Revelation 13:6.

[509] Refer to the Statement Concerning Subscription (Subscription Exceptions).

[510] John 1:3; Ephesians 3:16-19; John 1:16; Ephesians 2:5-6; Philippians 3:10; Romans 6:5-6; 2 Timothy 2:12.

[511] Ephesians 4:15-16; 1 Corinthians 12:7; 1 Corinthians 3:21-23; Colossians 2:19.

[512] 1 Thessalonians 5:11, 14; Romans 1:11-12, 14; 1 John 3:16-18; Galatians 6:10.

[513] Hebrews 10:24-25; Acts 2:42, 46; Isaiah 2:3; 1 Corinthians 11:20.

[514] Acts 2:44-45; 1 John 3:17; 2 Corinthians 8; 2 Corinthians 9; Acts 11:29-30.

[515] Colossians 1:18-19; 1 Corinthians 8:6; Isaiah 42:8; 1 Timothy 6:15-16; Psalm 45:7 with Hebrews 1:8-9.

[516] Exodus 20:15; Ephesians 4:28; Acts 5:4.

[517] Romans 4:11; Genesis 17:7, 10.

[518] Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23.

[519] 1 Corinthians 10:16; 1 Corinthians 11:25-26; Galatians 3:17.

[520] Romans 15:8; Exodus 12:48; Genesis 34:14.

[521] Romans 6:3-4; 1 Corinthians 10:16, 21.

[522] Genesis 17:10; Matthew 26:27-28; Titus 3:5.

[523] Romans 2:28-29; 1 Peter 3:21.

[524] Matthew 3:11; 1 Corinthians 12:13.

[525] Matthew 26:27-28; Matthew 28:19-20.

[526] Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:20, 23; 1 Corinthians 4:1; Hebrews 5:4.

[527] 1 Corinthians 10:1-4.

[528] Matthew 28:19.

[529] 1 Corinthians 12:13.

[530] Romans 4:11 with Colossians 2:11-12.

[531] Galatians 3:27; Romans 6:5.

[532] Titus 3:5.

[533] Mark 1:4.

[534] Romans 6:3-4.

[535] Matthew 28:19-20.

[536] Matthew 3:11; John 1:33; Matthew 28:19-20.

[537] Hebrews 9:10, 19-22; Acts 2:41; Acts 16:33; Mark 7:4.

[538] Mark 16:15-16; Acts 8:37-38.

[539] Genesis 17:7, 9-10 with Galatians 3:9, 14; Colossians 2:11-12; Acts 2:38-39 and Romans 4:11-12; 1 Corinthians 7:14; Matthew 28:19; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 18:15.

[540] Luke 7:30 with Exodus 4:24-26.

[541] Romans 4:11; Acts 10:2, 4, 22, 31, 45, 47.

[542] Acts 8:13, 23.

[543] John 3:5, 8.

[544] Galatians 3:27; Titus 3:5; Ephesians 5:25-26; Acts 2:38, 41.

[545] Titus 3:5.

[546] 1 Corinthians 11:23-26; 1 Corinthians 10:16-17, 21; 1 Corinthians 12:13.

[547] Hebrews 9:22, 25-26, 28.

[548] 1 Corinthians 11:24-26; Matthew 26:26-27.

[549] Hebrews 7:23-24, 27; Hebrews 10:11-12, 14, 18.

[550] Matthew 26:26-28 and Mark 14:22-24 and Luke 22:19-20 with 1 Corinthians 11:23-26.

[551] Acts. 20:7; 1 Corinthians 11:20.

[552] 1 Corinthians 10:16.

[553] Mark 14:23; 1 Corinthians 11:25-29.

[554] Matthew 15:9.

[555] Matthew 26:26-28.

[556] 1 Corinthians 11:26-28; Matthew 26:29.

[557] Acts 3:21 with 1 Corinthians 11:24-26; Luke 24:6, 39.

[558] 1 Corinthians 11:28.

[559] 1 Corinthians 10:16.

[560] 1 Corinthians 11:27-29; 2 Corinthians 6:14-16.

[561] 1 Corinthians 5:6-7, 13; 2 Thessalonians 3:6, 14-15; Matthew 7:6.

[562] Isaiah 9:6-7; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Thessalonians 5:12; Acts 20:17, 28; Hebrews 13:7, 17, 24; 1 Corinthians 12:28; Matthew 28:18-20.

[563] Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:17-18; John 20:21-23; 2 Corinthians 2:6-8.

[564] 1 Corinthians chap. 5; 1 Timothy 5:20; Matthew 7:6; 1 Timothy 1:20; 1 Corinthians 11:27 to the end, with Jude 23.

[565] 1 Thessalonians 5:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:6, 14-15; 1 Corinthians 5:4-5, 13; Matthew 18:17; Titus 3:10.

[566] Acts 15:2, 4, 6.

[567] Isaiah 49:23; 1 Timothy 2:1-2; 2 Chronicles 19:8-11; 2 Chronicles 29; 2 Chronicles 30; Matthew 2:4-5; Proverbs 11:14.

[568] Acts 15:2, 4, 22-23, 25.

[569] Refer to the Statement Concerning Subscription (Subscription Exceptions).

[570] Acts 15:15, 19, 24, 27-31; Acts 16:4; Matthew 18:17-20.

[571] Ephesians 2:20; Acts 17:11; 1 Corinthians 2:5; 2 Corinthians 1:24.

[572] Luke 12:13-14; John 18:36.

[573] Genesis 3:19; Acts 13:36.

[574] Luke 23:43; Ecclesiastes 12:7.

[575] Hebrews 12:23; 2 Corinthians 5:1, 6, 8; Philippians 1:23 with Acts 3:21 and Ephesians 4:10.

[576] Luke 16:23-24; Acts 1:25; Jude 6-7; Peter 3:19.

[577] 1 Thessalonians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 15:51-52.

[578] Job 19:26-27; 1 Corinthians 15:42-44.

[579] Acts 24:15; John 5:28-29; 1 Corinthians 15:43; Philippians 3:21.

[580] Acts 17:31.

[581] John 5:22, 27.

[582] 1 Corinthians 6:3; Jude 6; 2 Peter 2:4.

[583] 2 Corinthians 5:10; Ecclesiastes 12:14; Romans 2:16; Romans 14:10, 12; Matthew 12:36-37.

[584] Matthew 25:31 to the end, Romans 2:5-6; Romans 9:22-23; Matthew 25:21; Acts 3:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:7-10.

[585] 2 Peter 3:11, 14; 2 Corinthians 5:10-11; 2 Thessalonians 1:5-7; Luke 21:27-28; Romans 8:23-25.

[586] Matthew 24:36, 42-44; Mark 13:35-37; Luke 12:35-36; Revelation 22:20.

[587] Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 10:31.

[588] Psalm 73:24-28.

[589] Romans 1:19-20; Psalm 19:1-3; Acts 17:28.

[590] 1 Corinthians 2:9-10; 2 Timothy 3:15-17; Isaiah 59:21.

[591] 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Peter 1:19-21.

[592] Ephesians 2:20; Revelation 22:18-19; Isaiah 8:20; Luke 16:29, 31; Galatians 1:8-9; 2 Timothy 3:15-16.

[593] Hosea 8:12; 1 Corinthians 2:6-7, 13; Psalm 119:18, 129.

[594] Psalm 12:6; Psalm 119:140.

[595] Acts 10:43; Acts 26:22.

[596] Romans 3:19, 27.

[597] Acts 23:28; Hebrews 4:12; James 1:18; Psalm 19:7-9; Romans 15:4; Acts 20:32.

[598] John 16:13-14; John 20:31; 1 John 2:20, 27.

[599] 2 Timothy 1:13.

[600] Hebrews 11:6.

[601] 1 John 5:7.

[602] Acts 15:14-15, 18.

[603] Acts 4:27-28.

[604] John 4:24.

[605] Exodus 3:14; Job 11:7-9.

[606] Acts 7:2.

[607] 1 Timothy 6:15.

[608] Matthew 5:48.

[609] Genesis 17:1.

[610] Psalm 90:2.

[611] Malachi 3:6; James 1:17.

[612] 1 Kings 8:27.

[613] Psalm 139:1-13.

[614] Revelation 4:8.

[615] Hebrews 4:13; Psalm 147:5.

[616] Romans 16:27.

[617] Isaiah 6:3; Revelation 15:4.

[618] Deuteronomy 32:4.

[619] Exodus 34:6.

[620] Deuteronomy 6:4; 1 Corinthians 8:4, 6; Jeremiah 10:10.

[621] 1 John 5:7; Matthew 3:16-17; Matthew 28:19; 2 Corinthians 13:14; John 10:30.

[622] Hebrews 1:5-6, 8.

[623] John 1:14, 18.

[624] John 15:26; Galatians 4:6.

[625] Isaiah 6:3, 5, 8; John 12:41; Acts 5:3-4; Acts 28:25; 1 John 5:20.

[626] John 1:1; John 2:24-25; Isaiah 9:6; 1 Corinthians 2:10-11.

[627] Colossians 1:16; Genesis 1:2.

[628] Matthew 28:19; 2 Corinthians 13:14.

[629] Ephesians 1:11; Romans 9:14-15, 18; Romans 11:33.

[630] Ephesians 1:4, 11; Romans 9:22-23; Psalm 33:11.

[631] 1 Timothy 5:21.

[632] Ephesians 1:4-6; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14.

[633] Romans 9:17-18, 21-22; Matthew 11:25-26; 2 Timothy 2:20; Jude 1:4; 1 Peter 2:8.

[634] Ephesians 1:11.

[635] Genesis 1; Hebrews 11:3; Proverbs 16:4.

[636] Colossians 1:16.

[637] Psalm 104:4.

[638] Matthew 22:30.

[639] Matthew 25:31.

[640] 2 Samuel 14:17; Matthew 24:36.

[641] 2 Thessalonians 1:7.

[642] Psalm 103:20-21.

[643] 2 Peter 2:4.

[644] Genesis 1:27.

[645] Genesis 2:7.

[646] Genesis 2:22.

[647] Genesis 2:7; Job 35:11; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Matthew 10:28; Luke 23:43.

[648] Genesis 1:27.

[649] Colossians 3:10.

[650] Ephesians 4:24.

[651] Romans 2:14-15.

[652] Ecclesiastes 7:29.

[653] Genesis 1:28.

[654] Genesis 3:6; Ecclesiastes 7:29.

[655] Psalm 145:17.

[656] Psalm 104:24; Isaiah 28:29.

[657] Hebrews 1:8.

[658] Psalm 103:19.

[659] Matthew 10:29-31; Genesis 45:7.

[660] Romans 11:36; Isaiah 43:14.

[661] Jude 1:6; 2 Peter 2:4; Hebrews 2:16; John 8:44.

[662] Job 1:12; Matthew 8:31.

[663] 1 Timothy 5:21; Mark 8:38; Hebrews 12:22.

[664] Psalm 104:4.

[665] 2 Kings 19:35; Hebrews 1:14.

[666] Genesis 2:8, 15-16.

[667] Genesis 1:28.

[668] Genesis 2:18.

[669] Genesis 1:26-29; Genesis 3:8.

[670] Genesis 2:3.

[671] Galatians 3:12; Romans 10:5.

[672] Genesis 2:9.

[673] Genesis 2:17.

[674] Genesis 3:6-8, 13; Ecclesiastes 7:29; 2 Corinthians 11:3.

[675] Acts 17:26.

[676] Genesis 2:16-17; Romans 5:12-20; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22.

[677] Romans 3:23; Romans 5:12

[678] 1 John 3:4; 1 John 3:10, 12.

[679] Romans 5:12, 19.

[680] Romans 3:10-19; Romans 5:6; Romans 8:7-8; Ephesians 2:1-3; Genesis 6:5.

[681] James 1:14-15; Matthew 15:19.

[682] Psalm 51:5; Job 14:4; Job 15:14; John 3:6.

[683] Genesis 3:8, 10, 24.

[684] Ephesians 2:2-3.

[685] 2 Timothy 2:26.

[686] Genesis 2:17; Lamentations 3:39; Romans 6:23; Matthew 25:41, 46; Jude 1:7.

[687] Ephesians 4:18.

[688] Romans 1:28.

[689] 2 Thessalonians 2:11.

[690] Romans 2:5.

[691] Isaiah 33:14; Genesis 4:13; Matthew 27:4.

[692] Romans 1:26.

[693] Genesis 3:17.

[694] Deuteronomy 28:15-18.

[695] Romans 6:21, 23.

[696] 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Mark 9:43-44, 46, 48; Luke 16:24.

[697] 1 Thessalonians 5:9.

[698] Galatians 3:10, 12.

[699] Titus 3:4-7; Galatians 3:21; Romans 3:20-22.

[700] Galatians 3:16; Romans 5:15-21; Isaiah 53:10-11.

[701] Genesis 3:15; Isaiah 42:6; John 6:27.

[702] 1 John 5:11-12.

[703] John 1:12; John 3:16.

[704] Proverbs 1:23.

[705] 2 Corinthians 4:13.

[706] Galatians 5:22-23.

[707] Ezekiel 36:27.

[708] James 2:18, 22.

[709] 2 Corinthians 5:14-15.

[710] Ephesians 2:18.

[711] 2 Corinthians 3:6-9.

[712] Romans 15:8.

[713] Acts 3:20, 24.

[714] Hebrews 10:1.

[715] Romans 4:11.

[716] 1 Corinthians 5:7.

[717] Hebrews 8-10; Hebrews 11:13.

[718] Galatians 3:7-9, 14.

[719] Mark 16:15.

[720] Matthew 28:19-20.

[721] 1 Corinthians 11:23-25.

[722] 2 Corinthians 3:6-9; Hebrews 8:6, 10-11; Matthew 28:19.

[723] 1 Timothy 2:5.

[724] John 1:1, 14; John 10:30; Philippians 2:6.

[725] Galatians 4:4.

[726] Luke 1:35; Romans 9:5; Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 7:24-25.

[727] John 1:14; Matthew 26:38.

[728] Luke 1:27, 31, 35, 42; Galatians 4:4.

[729] Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 7:26.

[730] Acts. 2:24-25; Romans 1:4; Romans 4:25; Hebrews 9:14.

[731] Acts 20:28; Hebrews 7:25-28; Hebrews 9:14.

[732] Romans 3:24-26.

[733] Ephesians 1:6; Matthew 3:17.

[734] Titus. 2:13-14.

[735] Galatians 4:6.

[736] Luke 1:68-69, 71, 74.

[737] Hebrews 5:8-9; Hebrews 9:11-15.

[738] Hebrews 2:16.

[739] Galatians 4:4.

[740] Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 7:24-25.

[741] Hebrews 4:15.

[742] Galatians 4:5.

[743] Hebrews 4:16.

[744] Matthew 1:21, 23; Matthew 3:17; Hebrews 9:14.

[745] 1 Peter 2:6.

[746] Matthew 1:21.

[747] John 3:34; Psalm 45:7.

[748] John 6:27; Matthew 28:18-20.

[749] Acts 3:21-22; Luke 4:18, 21.

[750] Hebrews 4:14-15; Hebrews 5:5-7.

[751] Psalm 2:6; Matthew 21:5; Isaiah 9:6-7; Philippians 2:8-11.

[752] John 1:18.

[753] 1 Peter 1:10-12.

[754] Hebrews 1:1-2.

[755] John 15:15.

[756] Acts 20:32; Ephesians 4:11-13; John 20:31.

[757] Hebrews 9:14, 28.

[758] Hebrews 2:17.

[759] Hebrews 7:25.

[760] Acts 15:14-16; Isaiah 4:4-5; Genesis 49:10; Psalm 110:3.

[761] Ephesians 4:11-12; 1 Corinthians 12:28.

[762] Isaiah 33:22.

[763] Matthew 18:17-18; 1 Corinthians 5:4-5.

[764] Acts 5:31.

[765] Revelation 2:10; Revelation 22:12.

[766] Revelation 3:19.

[767] Isaiah 63:9.

[768] 1 Corinthians 15:25; Psalm 110:1-2.

[769] Romans 14:10-11.

[770] Romans 8:28.

[771] 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Psalm 2:8-9.

[772] Philippians 2:6-8; Luke 1:31; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Acts 2:24.

[773] John 1:14, 18; Galatians 4:4; Luke 2:7.

[774] Galatians 4:4.

[775] Matthew 5:17; Romans 5:19.

[776] Psalm 22:6; Hebrews 12:2-3.

[777] Matthew 4:1-12; Luke 4:13.

[778] Hebrews 2:17-18; Hebrews 4:15; Isaiah 52:13-14.

[779] Matthew 27:4.

[780] Matthew 26:56.

[781] Isaiah 53:2-3.

[782] Matthew 27:26-50; John 19:34.

[783] Luke 22:44; Matthew 27:46.

[784] Isaiah 53:10.

[785] Philippians 2:8; Hebrews 12:2; Galatians 3:13.

[786] 1 Corinthians 15:3-4.

[787] Psalm 16:10; Acts 2:24-27, 31; Romans 6:9; Matthew 12:40.

[788] 1 Corinthians 15:4.

[789] Mark 16:19.

[790] Ephesians 1:20.

[791] Acts 1:11; Acts 17:31.

[792] Acts 2:24, 27.

[793] Luke 24:39.

[794] Romans 6:9; Revelation 1:18.

[795] John 10:18.

[796] Romans 1:4.

[797] Romans 8:34.

[798] Hebrews 2:14.

[799] Romans 14:9.

[800] 1 Corinthians 15:21-22.

[801] Ephesians 1:20, 22-23; Colossians 1:18.

[802] Romans 4:25.

[803] Ephesians 2:1, 5-6; Colossians 2:12.

[804] 1 Corinthians 15:25-27.

[805] 1 Corinthians 15:20.

[806] Acts 1:2-3.

[807] Matthew 28:19-20.

[808] Hebrews 6:20.

[809] Ephesians 4:8.

[810] Acts 1:9-11; Ephesians 4:10; Psalm 68:18.

[811] Colossians 3:1-2.

[812] John 14:3.

[813] Acts 3:21.

[814] Philippians 2:9.

[815] Acts 2:28; Psalm 16:11.

[816] John 17:5.

[817] Ephesians 1:22; 1 Peter 3:22.

[818] Ephesians 4:10-12; Psalm 110:1.

[819] Romans 8:34.

[820] Hebrews 9:12, 24.

[821] Hebrews 1:3.

[822] John 3:16; John 17:9, 20, 24.

[823] Romans 8:33-34.

[824] Romans 5:1-2; 1 John 2:1-2.

[825] Hebrews 4:16.

[826] Ephesians 1:6.

[827] 1 Peter 2:5.

[828] Acts 3:14-15.

[829] Matthew 24:30.

[830] Luke 9:26; Matthew 25:31.

[831] 1 Thessalonians 4:16.

[832] Acts 17:31.

[833] Hebrews 9:12.

[834] 2 Corinthians 1:20.

[835] John 1:11-12.

[836] Titus 3:5-6.

[837] Ephesians 1:13-14; John 6:37, 39; John 10:15-16.

[838] Ephesians 2:8; 2 Corinthians 4:13.

[839] Romans 10:14.

[840] 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Ephesians 2:12; John 1:10-12.

[841] John 8:24; Mark 16:16.

[842] 1 Corinthians 1:20-24.

[843] John 4:22; Romans 9:31-32; Philippians 3:4-9.

[844] Acts 4:12.

[845] Ephesians 5:23.

[846] John 12:38-40; Romans 9:6; Romans 11:7; Matthew 7:21; Matthew 22:14.

[847] 1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Romans 15:9-12; Revelation 7:9; Psalm 2:8; Psalm 22:27-31; Psalm 45:17; Matthew 28:19-20; Isaiah 59:21.

[848] 1 Corinthians 7:14; Acts 2:39; Romans 11:16; Genesis 17:7.

[849] Isaiah 4:5-6; 1 Timothy 4:10.

[850] Psalm 115:1-2, 9; Isaiah 31:4-5; Zechariah 12:2-4, 8-9.

[851] Acts 2:39, 42.

[852] Psalm 147:19-20; Romans 9:4; Ephesians 4:11-12; Mark 16:15-16.

[853] John 6:37.

[854] Ephesians 1:20, 22-23; John 10:16; John 11:52.

[855] John 17:21, 24; Ephesians 2:5-6.

[856] Ephesians 1:22; Ephesians 2:6-8.

[857] 1 Corinthians 6:17; John 10:28; Ephesians 5:23, 30.

[858] 1 Peter 5:10; 1 Corinthians 1:9.

[859] John 5:25; Ephesians 1:18-20; 2 Timothy 1:8-9.

[860] Titus. 3:4-5; Ephesians 2:4-5, 7-9; Romans 9:11.

[861] 2 Corinthians 5:20; 2 Corinthians 6:1-2; John 6:44; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14.

[862] Acts 26:18; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 12.

[863] Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26-27; John 6:45.

[864] Ephesians 2:5; Philippians 2:13; Deuteronomy 30:6.

[865] Acts 13:48.

[866] Matthew 22:14.

[867] Matthew 7:22; Matthew 13:20-21; Hebrews 6:4-6.

[868] John 6:64-65; John 12:38-40; Acts 18:25-27; Psalm 81:11-12.

[869] Romans 8:30.

[870] Ephesians 1:5.

[871] 1 Corinthians 1:30.

[872] Romans 3:22, 24-25; Romans 4:5.

[873] 2 Corinthians 5:19, 21; Romans 3:22-25, 27-28.

[874] Titus 3:5, 7; Ephesians 1:7.

[875] Romans 4:6-8; Romans 5:17-19.

[876] Acts 10:43; Galatians 2:16; Philippians 3:9.

[877] Romans 5:8-10, 19.

[878] 2 Timothy 2:5-6; Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 10:10; Matthew 20:28; Daniel 9:24, 26; Isaiah 53:4-6, 10-12; Romans 8:32; 1 Peter 1:18-19.

[879] 2 Corinthians 5:21.

[880] Romans 3:24-25.

[881] Ephesians 2:8.

[882] Ephesians 1:7.

[883] Hebrews 10:39.

[884] 2 Corinthians 4:13; Ephesians 1:17-19.

[885] Romans 10:14, 17.

[886] Acts 2:37; Acts 4:12; Acts 16:30; John 16:8-9; Romans 5:6; Ephesians 2:1.

[887] Ephesians 1:13.

[888] John 1:12; Acts 10:43; Acts 16:31.

[889] Philippians 3:9; Acts 15:11.

[890] Galatians 3:11; Romans 3:28.

[891] Romans 4:5; Romans 10:10.

[892] John 1:12; Philippians 3:9; Galatians 2:16.

[893] 1 John 3:1.

[894] Ephesians 1:5; Galatians 4:4-5.

[895] John 1:12.

[896] 2 Corinthians 4:18; Revelation 3:12.

[897] Galatians 4:6.

[898] Psalm 103:13; Proverbs 14:26; Matthew 6:32.

[899] Hebrews 6:12; Romans 8:17.

[900] Ephesians 1:4; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:13.

[901] Romans 6:4-6.

[902] Ephesians 4:23-24.

[903] Acts 11:18; 1 John 3:9.

[904] Jude 1:20; Hebrews 6:11-12; Ephesians 3:16-19; Colossians 1:10-11.

[905] Romans 6:4; Romans 6:14; Galatians 5:2.

[906] 2 Timothy 2:25.

[907] Zechariah 12:10.

[908] Acts 11:18, 20-21.

[909] Ezekiel 18:28, 30, 32; Luke 15:17-18; Hosea 2:6-7.

[910] Ezekiel 36:31; Isaiah 30:22.

[911] Joel 2:12-13.

[912] Jeremiah 31:18-19.

[913] 2 Corinthians 7:11.

[914] Acts 26:18; Ezekiel 14:6; 1 Kings 8:47-48.

[915] Psalm 119:6, 59, 128; Luke 1:6; 2 Kings 23:25.

[916] 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 6:11.

[917] Romans 4:6, 8.

[918] Ezekiel 36:27.

[919] Romans 3:24-25.

[920] Romans 6:6, 14.

[921] Romans 8:33-34.

[922] 1 John 2:12-14; Hebrews 5:12-14.

[923] 1 John 1:8, 10.

[924] 2 Corinthians 7:1; Philippians 3:12-14.

[925] Romans 7:18, 23; Mark 14:66-72; Galatians 2:11-12.

[926] Hebrews 12:1.

[927] Isaiah 64:6; Exodus 28:38.

[928] Jeremiah 31:3.

[929] 2 Timothy 2:19-21; 2 Samuel 23:5.

[930] 1 Corinthians 1:8-9.

[931] Hebrews 7:25; Luke 22:32.

[932] 1 John 2:27; 1 John 3:9.

[933] Jeremiah 32:40; John 10:28.

[934] 1 Peter 1:5.

[935] 1 John 2:3.

[936] 1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 John 3:14, 18-19, 21, 24; 1 John 4:13, 16; Hebrews 6:11-12.

[937] Romans 8:16.

[938] 1 John 5:13.

[939] Ephesians 1:13.

[940] Isaiah 50:10; Psalm 88.

[941] Psalm 22:1; Psalm 31:22; Psalm 51:8, 12; Psalm 77:1-12; Song of Solomon 5:2-3, 6.

[942] 1 John 3:9; Job 13:15; Psalm 73:15, 23; Isaiah 54:7-10.

[943] 2 Corinthians 3:18.

[944] Luke 23:43.

[945] 1 Thessalonians 4:17.

[946] Ephesians 2:5.

[947] Romans 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:22.

[948] Romans 5:1-2; Romans 14:17.

[949] Genesis 4:13; Matthew 27:4; Hebrews 10:27; Romans 2:9; Mark 9:44.

[950] Romans 6:23.

[951] Hebrews 9:27.

[952] Romans 5:12.

[953] 1 Corinthians 15:26, 55-57; Hebrews 2:15.

[954] Isaiah 57:1-2; 2 Kings 22:20.

[955] Revelation 14:13; Ephesians 5:27.

[956] Luke 23:43; Philippians 1:23.

[957] Hebrews 12:23.

[958] 2 Corinthians 5:1, 6, 8; Philippians 1:23; Acts 3:21; Ephesians 4:10.

[959] 1 John 3:2; 1 Corinthians 13:12.

[960] Romans 8:23; Psalm 16:9.

[961] 1 Thessalonians 4:14.

[962] Isaiah 57:2.

[963] Job 19:26-27.

[964] Luke 16:23-24; Acts 1:25; Jude 1:6-7.

[965] Acts 24:15.

[966] 1 Corinthians 15:51-53; 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17; John 5:28-29.

[967] 1 Corinthians 15:21-23, 42-44; Philippians 3:21.

[968] John 5:27-29; Matthew 25:33.

[969] 2 Peter 2:4; Jude 1:6-7, 14-15; Matthew 25:46.

[970] Matthew 24:36, 42, 44; Luke 21:35-36.

[971] Matthew 25:33.

[972] Romans 2:15-16.

[973] Matthew 25:41-43.

[974] Luke 16:26; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9.

[975] 1 Thessalonians 4:17.

[976] Matthew 10:32; Matthew 25:33.

[977] 1 Corinthians 6:2-3.

[978] Matthew 25:34, 46.

[979] Ephesians 5:27; Revelation 14:13.

[980] Psalm 16:11.

[981] Hebrews 12:22-23.

[982] 1 John 3:2; 1 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 4:17-18.

[983] Romans 12:1-2; Micah 6:8; 1 Samuel 15:22.

[984] Genesis 1:26-27; Genesis 2:17; Romans 2:14-15; Romans 10:5.

[985] Deuteronomy 5:1-3, 31, 33; Luke 10:26-27; Galatians 3:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:23.

[986] Luke 1:75; Acts 14:16.

[987] Romans 10:5; Galatians 3:10, 12.

[988] Romans 8:3; Galatians 2:16.

[989] 1 Timothy 1:8.

[990] Leviticus 11:44-45; Leviticus 20:7-8; Romans 7:12.

[991] Micah 6:8; James 2:10-11.

[992] Psalm 19:11-12; Romans 3:20; Romans 7:7.

[993] Romans 3:9, 23.

[994] Galatians 3:21-22.

[995] Romans 10:4.

[996] 1 Timothy 1:9-10.

[997] Galatians 3:24.

[998] Romans 1:20; Romans 2:15.

[999] Galatians 3:10.

[1000] Romans 6:14; Romans 7:4, 6; Galatians 4:4-5.

[1001] Romans 3:20.

[1002] Galatians 5:23; Romans 8:1.

[1003] Romans 7:24-25; Romans 8:3-4; Galatians 3:13-14.

[1004] Luke 1:68-69, 74-75; Colossians 1:12-14.

[1005] Romans 7:22; Romans 12:2; Titus 2:11-14.

[1006] Deuteronomy 10:4; Exodus 34:1-4.

[1007] Matthew 22:37-38, 40.

[1008] Psalm 19:7; James 2:10; Matthew 5:21-22.

[1009] Romans 7:14; Deuteronomy 6:5; Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28, 33-34, 37-39, 43-44; Matthew 22:37-39.

[1010] Colossians 3:5; Amos 8:5; Proverbs 1:19; 1 Timothy 6:10.

[1011] Isaiah 58:13; Deuteronomy 6:13; Matthew 4:9-10; Matthew 15:4-6.

[1012] Matthew 5:21-25; Ephesians 4:28.

[1013] Exodus 20:12; Proverbs 30:17.

[1014] Jeremiah 18:7-8; Exodus 20:7; Psalm 15:1, 4-5; Psalm 24:4-5.

[1015] Job 13:7; Job 36:21; Romans 3:8; Hebrews 11:25.

[1016] Deuteronomy 4:8-9.

[1017] Matthew 12:7.

[1018] Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28; Matthew 15:4-6; Hebrews 10:24-25; 1 Thessalonians 5:22-23; Galatians 5:26; Colossians 3:21.

[1019] Exodus 20:10; Leviticus 19:17; Genesis 18:19; Joshua 24:15; Deuteronomy 6:6-7.

[1020] 2 Corinthians 1:24.

[1021] 1 Timothy 5:22.

[1022] Exodus 20:2.

[1023] Isaiah 44:6.

[1024] Exodus 3:14.

[1025] Exodus 6:3.

[1026] Acts 17:24, 28.

[1027] Genesis 17:7; Romans 3:29.

[1028] Luke 1:74-75.

[1029] 1 Peter 1:15-18; Leviticus 18:30; Leviticus 19:37.

[1030] Luke 10:27.

[1031] Exodus 20:3.

[1032] 1 Chronicles 28:9; Deuteronomy 26:17; Isaiah 43:10; Jeremiah 14:22.

[1033] Psalm 29:2; Psalm 95:6-7; Matthew 4:10.

[1034] Malachi 3:16.

[1035] Psalm 63:6.

[1036] Ecclesiastes 12:1.

[1037] Psalm 71:19.

[1038] Malachi 1:6.

[1039] Isaiah 45:23.

[1040] Joshua 24:15, 22.

[1041] Deuteronomy 6:5.

[1042] Psalm 73:25.

[1043] Isaiah 8:13.

[1044] Exodus 14:31.

[1045] Isaiah 26:4.

[1046] Psalm 130:7.

[1047] Psalm 37:4.

[1048] Psalm 32:11.

[1049] Romans 12:11; Numbers 25:11.

[1050] Philippians 4:6.

[1051] Jeremiah 7:28; James 4:7.

[1052] 1 John 3:22.

[1053] Jeremiah 31:18; Psalm 119:136.

[1054] Micah 6:8.

[1055] Psalm 14:1; Ephesians 2:12.

[1056] Jeremiah 2:27-28; 1 Thessalonians 1:9.

[1057] Psalm 81:11.

[1058] Isaiah 43:22-24.

[1059] Jeremiah 4:22; Hosea 4:1, 6.

[1060] Jeremiah 2:32

[1061] Acts 17:23, 29.

[1062] Isaiah 40:18.

[1063] Psalm 50:21.

[1064] Deuteronomy 29:29.

[1065] Titus 1:16; Hebrews 12:16.

[1066] Romans 1:30.

[1067] 2 Timothy 3:2.

[1068] Philippians 2:21.

[1069] 1 John 2:15-16; 1 Samuel 2:29; Colossians 3:2, 5.

[1070] 1 John 4:1.

[1071] Hebrews 3:12.

[1072] Galatians 5:20; Titus 3:10.

[1073] Acts 26:9.

[1074] Psalm 78:22.

[1075] Genesis 4:13.

[1076] Jeremiah 5:3.

[1077] Isaiah 42:25.

[1078] Romans 2:5.

[1079] Jeremiah 13:15.

[1080] Psalm 19:13.

[1081] Zephaniah 1:12.

[1082] Matthew 4:7.

[1083] Romans 3:8.

[1084] Jeremiah 17:5.

[1085] 2 Timothy 3:4.

[1086] Galatians 4:17; John 16:2; Romans 10:2; Luke 9:54-55.

[1087] Revelation 3:16.

[1088] Revelation 3:1.

[1089] Ezekiel 14:5; Isaiah 1:4-5.

[1090] Romans 1:25; Romans 10:13-14; Hosea 4:12; Acts 10:25-26; Revelation 19:10; Matthew 4:10; Colossians 2:18.

[1091] Leviticus 20:6; 1 Samuel 28:7, 11; 1 Chronicles 10:13-14.

[1092] Acts 5:3.

[1093] 2 Corinthians 1:24; Matthew 23:9.

[1094] Deuteronomy 32:15; 2 Samuel 12:9; Proverbs 13:13.

[1095] Acts 7:51; Ephesians 4:30.

[1096] Psalm 73:2-3, 13-15, 22; Job 1:22.

[1097] 1 Samuel 6:7-9.

[1098] Daniel 5:23.

[1099] Deuteronomy 8:17; Daniel 4:30.

[1100] Habakkuk 1:16.

[1101] Ezekiel 8:5-18; Psalm 44:20-21.

[1102] 1 Chronicles 28:9.

[1103] Exodus 20:4-6.

[1104] Deuteronomy 32:46-47; Matthew 28:20; Acts 2:42; 1 Timothy 6:13-14.

[1105] Philippians 4:6; Ephesians 5:20.

[1106] Deuteronomy 17:18-19; Acts 15:21; 2 Timothy 4:2; James 1:21-22.

[1107] Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23-30.

[1108] Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:15-17; 1 Corinthians 5; 1 Corinthians 12:28.

[1109] Ephesians 4:11-12; 1 Timothy 5:17-18; 1 Corinthians 9:1-15.

[1110] Joel 2:12-13; 1 Corinthians 7:5.

[1111] Deuteronomy 6:13.

[1112] Isaiah 19:21; Psalm 76:11.

[1113] Acts 17:16-17; Psalm 16:4.

[1114] Deuteronomy 7:5; Isaiah 30:22.

[1115] Numbers 15:39.

[1116] Deuteronomy 13:6-8.

[1117] Hosea 5:11; Micah 6:16.

[1118] 1 Kings 11:33; 1 Kings 12:33.

[1119] Deuteronomy 12:30-32.

[1120] Deuteronomy 13:6-12; Zechariah 13:2-3; Revelation 2:2, 14-15, 20; Revelation 17:12, 16-17.

[1121] Deuteronomy 4:15-19; Acts 17:29; Romans 1:21-23, 25.

[1122] Daniel 3:18; Galatians 4:8.

[1123] Exodus 32:5.

[1124] Exodus 32:8.

[1125] 1 Kings 18:26, 28; Isaiah 65:11.

[1126] Acts 17:22; Colossians 2:21-23.

[1127] Malachi 1:7-8, 14.

[1128] Deuteronomy 4:2.

[1129] Psalm 106:39.

[1130] Matthew 15:9.

[1131] 1 Peter 1:18.

[1132] Jeremiah 44:17.

[1133] Isaiah 65:3-5; Galatians 1:13-14.

[1134] 1 Samuel 13:11-12; 1 Samuel 15:21.

[1135] Acts 8:18.

[1136] Romans 2:22; Malachi 3:8.

[1137] Exodus 4:24-26.

[1138] Matthew 22:5; Malachi 1:7, 13.

[1139] Matthew 23:13.

[1140] Acts 13:44-45; 1 Thessalonians 2:15-16.

[1141] Exodus 20:5-6.

[1142] Psalm 45:11; Revelation 20:3-4.

[1143] Exodus 34:13-14.

[1144] 1 Corinthians 10:20-22; Jeremiah 7:18-20; Ezekiel 16:26-27; Deuteronomy 32:16-20.

[1145] Hosea 2:2-4.

[1146] Deuteronomy 5:29.

[1147] Exodus 20:7.

[1148] Matthew 6:9; Deuteronomy 28:58; Psalm 29:2; Psalm 68:4; Revelation 15:3-4.

[1149] Malachi 1:14; Ecclesiastes 5:1.

[1150] Psalm 138:2.

[1151] 1 Corinthians 11:24-25, 28-29.

[1152] 1 Timothy 2:8.

[1153] Jeremiah 4:2.

[1154] Ecclesiastes 5:2, 4-6.

[1155] Acts 1:24, 26.

[1156] Job 36:24.

[1157] Malachi 3:16.

[1158] Psalm 8:1, 3-4, 9.

[1159] Colossians 3:17; Psalm 105:2, 5.

[1160] Psalm 102:18.

[1161] 1 Peter 3:15; Micah 4:5.

[1162] Philippians 1:27.

[1163] 1 Corinthians 10:31.

[1164] Jeremiah 32:39.

[1165] 1 Peter 2:12.

[1166] Malachi 2:2.

[1167] Acts 17:23.

[1168] Proverbs 30:9.

[1169] Malachi 1:6-7, 12; Malachi 3:14.

[1170] 1 Samuel 4:3-5; Jeremiah 7:4, 9-10, 14, 31; Colossians 2:20-22.

[1171] 2 Kings 18:30, 35; Exodus 5:2; Psalm 139:20.

[1172] Psalm 50:16-17.

[1173] Psalm 50:16-17.

[1174] Isaiah 5:12.

[1175] 2 Kings 19:22; Leviticus 24:11.

[1176] Zechariah 5:4; Zechariah 8:17.

[1177] 1 Samuel 17:43; 2 Samuel 16:5.

[1178] Jeremiah 5:7; Jeremiah 23:10.

[1179] Deuteronomy 23:18; Acts 23:12, 14.

[1180] Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24; Psalm 22:18.

[1181] Psalm 24:4; Ezekiel 17:16, 18-19.

[1182] Mark 6:26; 1 Samuel 25:22, 32-34

[1183] Romans 9:14, 19-20.

[1184] Deuteronomy 29:29.

[1185] Romans 3:5, 7; Romans 6:1-2.

[1186] Ecclesiastes 8:11; Ecclesiastes 9:3; Psalm 39.

[1187] Matthew 5:21-48.

[1188] Ezekiel 13:22.

[1189] 2 Peter 3:16; Matthew 22:24-31.

[1190] Isaiah 22:18; Jeremiah 23:34, 36, 38.

[1191] 1 Timothy 1:4, 6-7; 1 Timothy 6:4-5, 20; 2 Timothy 2:14; Titus. 3:9.

[1192] Deuteronomy 18:10-14; Acts 19:13.

[1193] 2 Timothy 4:3-4; Romans 13:13-14; 1 Kings 21:9-10; Jude 1:4.

[1194] Acts 13:45; 1 John 3:12.

[1195] Psalm 1:1; 2 Peter 3:3.

[1196] 1 Peter 4:4.

[1197] Acts 4:18; Acts 13:45-46, 50; Acts 19:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; Hebrews 10:29.

[1198] 2 Timothy 3:5; Matthew 6:1-2, 5, 16; Matthew 23:14.

[1199] Mark 8:38.

[1200] Psalm 73:14-15.

[1201] 1 Corinthians 6:5-6; Ephesians 5:15-17.

[1202] Isaiah 5:4; 2 Peter 1:8-9.

[1203] Romans 2:23-24.

[1204] Galatians 3:1, 3; Hebrews 6:6.

[1205] Exodus 20:7.

[1206] Leviticus 19:12.

[1207] Ezekiel 36:21-23; Deuteronomy 28:58-59; Zechariah 5:2-4.

[1208] 1 Samuel 2:12, 17, 22, 24; 1 Samuel 3:18.

[1209] Exodus 20:8-11.

[1210] Deuteronomy 5:12, 14, 18; Genesis 2:2-3; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2; Acts 20:7; Matthew 5:17-18; Isaiah 56:2, 4, 6-7.

[1211] Revelation 1:10.

[1212] Exodus 20:8, 10.

[1213] Exodus 16:25-28; Nehemiah 13:15-22; Jeremiah 17:21-22.

[1214] Matthew 12:1-13.

[1215] Isaiah 58:13-14; Isaiah 66:23; Luke 4:16; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2; Psalm 92; Leviticus 23:3.

[1216] Exodus 16:22, 25-26, 29; Exodus 20:8; Luke 23:54, 56; Nehemiah 13:19.

[1217] Exodus 20:10; Exodus 23:12; Joshua 24:15; Nehemiah 13:15, 17; Jeremiah 17:20-22.

[1218] Ezekiel 22:26.

[1219] Acts 15:7, 9; Ezekiel 33:30-32; Amos 8:5; Malachi 1:13.

[1220] Ezekiel 23:38.

[1221] Jeremiah 17:24, 27; Isaiah 58:13.

[1222] Exodus 20:9.

[1223] Exodus 20:10.

[1224] Exodus 20:11.

[1225] Exodus 20:8.

[1226] Exodus 16:23; Luke 23:54, 56; Mark 15:42; Nehemiah 13:19.

[1227] Psalm 92:13-14; Ezekiel 20:12, 19-20.

[1228] Genesis 2:2-3; Psalm 118:22, 24; Acts 4:10, 11; Revelation 1:10.

[1229] Ezekiel 22:26.

[1230] Nehemiah 9:14.

[1231] Exodus 34:21.

[1232] Deuteronomy 5:14-15; Amos 8:5.

[1233] Lamentations 1:7; Jeremiah 17:21-23; Nehemiah 13:15-23.

[1234] Matthew 22:39.

[1235] Matthew 7:12.

[1236] Exodus 20:12.

[1237] Proverbs 23:22-25; Ephesians 6:1-2.

[1238] 1 Timothy 5:1-2.

[1239] Genesis 4:20-22; Genesis 45:8.

[1240] 2 Kings 5:13.

[1241] 2 Kings 2:12; 2 Kings 13:14; Galatians 4:19.

[1242] Isaiah 49:23.

[1243] Ephesians 6:4; 2 Corinthians 12:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:7-8, 11; Numbers 11:11-12.

[1244] 1 Corinthians 4:14-16; 2 Kings 5:13.

[1245] Ephesians 5:21; 1 Peter 2:17; Romans 12:10.

[1246] Malachi 1:6; Leviticus 19:3.

[1247] Proverbs 31:28; 1 Peter 3:6.

[1248] Leviticus 19:32; 1 Kings 2:19.

[1249] 1 Timothy 2:1-2.

[1250] Hebrews 13:7; Philippians 3:17.

[1251] Ephesians 6:1-2, 5-7; 1 Peter 2:13-14; Romans 13:1-5; Hebrews 13:17; Proverbs 4:3-4; Proverbs 23:22; Exodus 18:19, 24.

[1252] Hebrews 12:9; 1 Peter 2:18-20.

[1253] Titus 2:9-10.

[1254] 1 Samuel 26:15-16; 2 Samuel 18:3; Esther 6:2.

[1255] Matthew 22:21; Romans 13:6-7; 1 Timothy 5:17-18; Galatians 6:6; Genesis 45:11; Genesis 47:12.

[1256] Psalm 127:3-5; Proverbs 31:23.

[1257] Matthew 15:4-6.

[1258] Numbers 11:28-29.

[1259] 1 Samuel 8:7; Isaiah 3:5.

[1260] 2 Samuel 15:1-12.

[1261] Exodus 21:15.

[1262] 1 Samuel 10:27.

[1263] 1 Samuel 2:25.

[1264] Deuteronomy 21:18-21.

[1265] Proverbs 30:11, 17.

[1266] Proverbs 19:26.

[1267] Colossians 3:19; Titus 2:4.

[1268] 1 Samuel 12:23; Job 1:5.

[1269] 1 Kings 8:55-56; Hebrews 7:7; Genesis 49:28.

[1270] Deuteronomy 6:6-7.

[1271] Ephesians 6:4.

[1272] 1 Peter 3:7.

[1273] 1 Peter 2:14; Romans 13:3.

[1274] Esther 6:3.

[1275] Romans 13:3-4.

[1276] Proverbs 29:15; 1 Peter 2:14.

[1277] Job 29:12-17; Isaiah 1:10, 17.

[1278] Ephesians 6:4.

[1279] 1 Timothy 5:8.

[1280] 1 Timothy 4:12; Titus 2:3-5.

[1281] 1 Kings 3:28.

[1282] Titus 2:15.

[1283] Ezekiel 34:2-4.

[1284] Philippians 2:21.

[1285] John 5:44; John 7:18.

[1286] Isaiah 56:10-11; Deuteronomy 17:17.

[1287] Daniel 3:4-6; Acts 4:17-18.

[1288] Exodus 5:10-18; Matthew 23:2, 4.

[1289] Matthew 14:8; Mark 6:24.

[1290] 2 Samuel 13:28.

[1291] 1 Samuel 3:13.

[1292] John 7:46-49; Colossians 3:21; Exodus 5:17.

[1293] 1 Peter 2:18-20; Hebrews 12:10; Deuteronomy 25:3.

[1294] Genesis 38:11, 26; Acts 18:17.

[1295] Ephesians 6:4.

[1296] Genesis 9:21; 1 Kings 1:6; 1 Kings 12:13-16; Samuel 2:29-31.

[1297] 1 Peter 2:17.

[1298] Romans 12:10.

[1299] Romans 12:15-16; Philippians 2:3-4.

[1300] Romans 13:8.

[1301] 2 Timothy 3:3.

[1302] Acts 7:9; Galatians 5:26.

[1303] Numbers 12:2; Esther 6:12-13.

[1304] 3 John 1:9; Luke 22:24.

[1305] Exodus 20:12.

[1306] Deuteronomy 5:16; 1 Kings 8:25; Ephesians 6:2-3.

[1307] Exodus 20:13.

[1308] Ephesians 5:28-29.

[1309] 1 Kings 18:4.

[1310] Jeremiah 26:15-16; Acts 23:12, 16-17, 21, 27.

[1311] Ephesians 4:26-27.

[1312] 2 Samuel 2:22; Deuteronomy 22:8.

[1313] Matthew 4:6-7; Proverbs 1:10-11, 15-16.

[1314] 1 Samuel 24:2; 1 Samuel 26:9-11; Genesis 37:21-22.

[1315] Psalm 82:4; Proverbs 24:11-12; 1 Samuel 14:45.

[1316] James 5:7-11; Hebrews 12:9.

[1317] 1 Thessalonians 4:11; 1 Peter 3:3-4; Psalm 37:8-11.

[1318] Proverbs 17:22.

[1319] Proverbs 25:16, 27.

[1320] 1 Timothy 5:23.

[1321] Isaiah 38:21.

[1322] Psalm 127:2.

[1323] Ecclesiastes 5:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:10, 12; Proverbs 16:26.

[1324] Ecclesiastes 3:4, 11.

[1325] 1 Samuel 19:4-5; 1 Samuel 22:13-14.

[1326] Romans 13:10.

[1327] Luke 10:33-34.

[1328] Colossians 3:12-13.

[1329] James 3:17.

[1330] 1 Peter 3:8-11; Proverbs 15:1; Judges 8:1-3.

[1331] Matthew 5:24; Ephesians 4:2, 32; Romans 12:17, 20-21.

[1332] 1 Thessalonians 5:14; Job 31:19-20; Matthew 25:35-36; Proverbs 31:8-9.

[1333] Acts 16:28.

[1334] Genesis 9:6.

[1335] Numbers 35:31, 33.

[1336] Jeremiah 48:10; Deuteronomy 20.

[1337] Exodus 22:2-3.

[1338] Matthew 25:42-43; James 2:15-16; Ecclesiastes 6:1-2.

[1339] Matthew 5:22.

[1340] 1 John 3:15; Leviticus 19:17.

[1341] Proverbs 14:30.

[1342] Romans 12:19.

[1343] Ephesians 4:31.

[1344] Matthew 6:31, 34.

[1345] Luke 21:34; Romans 13:13.

[1346] Ecclesiastes 2:22-23; Ecclesiastes 12:12.

[1347] Isaiah 5:12.

[1348] Proverbs 12:18; Proverbs 15:1.

[1349] Ezekiel 18:18; Exodus 1:14.

[1350] Galatians 5:15; Proverbs 23:29.

[1351] Numbers 35:16-18, 21.

[1352] Exodus 21:18-36.

[1353] Exodus 20:14.

[1354] 1 Thessalonians 4:4; Job 31:1; 1 Corinthians 7:34.

[1355] Colossians 4:6.

[1356] 1 Peter 2:3.

[1357] 1 Corinthians 7:2, 35-36.

[1358] Job 31:1.

[1359] Acts 24:24.

[1360] Proverbs 2:16-20.

[1361] 1 Timothy 2:9.

[1362] 1 Corinthians 7:2, 9.

[1363] Proverbs 5:19-20.

[1364] 1 Peter 3:7.

[1365] Proverbs 31:11, 27-28.

[1366] Proverbs 5:8; Genesis 39:8-10.

[1367] Proverbs 5:7.

[1368] Hebrews 13:4; Galatians 5:19.

[1369] 2 Samuel 13:14; 1 Corinthians 5:1.

[1370] Romans 1:24, 26-27; Leviticus 20:15-16.

[1371] Matthew 5:28; Matthew 15:19; Colossians 3:5.

[1372] Ephesians 5:3-4; Proverbs 7:5, 21-22.

[1373] Isaiah 3:16; 2 Peter 2:14.

[1374] Proverbs 7:10, 13.

[1375] 1 Timothy 4:3.

[1376] Leviticus 18:1-21; Mark 6:18; Malachi 2:11-12.

[1377] 1 Kings 15:12; 2 Kings 23:7; Deuteronomy 23:17-18; Leviticus 19:29; Jeremiah 5:7; Proverbs 7:24-27.

[1378] Matthew 19:10-11.

[1379] 1 Corinthians 7:7-9; Genesis 38:26.

[1380] Malachi 2:14-15; Matthew 19:5.

[1381] Malachi 2:16; Matthew 5:32.

[1382] 1 Corinthians 7:12-13.

[1383] Ezekiel 16:49; Proverbs 23:30-33.

[1384] Genesis 39:10; Proverbs 5:8.

[1385] Ephesians 5:4; Ezekiel 23:14-16; Isaiah 3:16; Isaiah 23:15-17; Mark 6:22; Romans 13:13; 1 Peter 4:3.

[1386] 2 Kings 9:30; Jeremiah 4:30; Ezekiel 23:40.

[1387] Exodus 20:15.

[1388] Psalm 15:2, 4; Zechariah 7:4, 10; Zechariah 8:16-17.

[1389] Romans 13:7.

[1390] Leviticus 6:2-5; Luke 19:8.

[1391] Luke 6:30, 38; 1 John 3:17; Ephesians 4:28; Galatians 6:10.

[1392] 1 Timothy 6:6-9; Galatians 6:14.

[1393] 1 Timothy 5:8.

[1394] Proverbs 27:23-27; Ecclesiastes 2:24; Ecclesiastes 3:12-13; 1 Timothy 6:17-18; Isaiah 38:1; Matthew 11:8.

[1395] 1 Corinthians 7:20; Genesis 2:15; Genesis 3:19.

[1396] Ephesians 4:28; Proverbs 10:4.

[1397] John 6:12; Proverbs 21:20.

[1398] 1 Corinthians 6:1-9.

[1399] Proverbs 6:1-6; Proverbs 11:15.

[1400] Leviticus 25:35; Deuteronomy 22:1-4; Exodus 23:4-5; Genesis 47:14, 20; Philippians 2:4; Matthew 22:39

[1401] James 2:15-16; 1 John 3:17.

[1402] Ephesians 4:28; Psalm 42:10.

[1403] Psalm 62:10.

[1404] 1 Timothy 1:10.

[1405] Proverbs 29:24; Psalm 50:18.

[1406] 1 Thessalonians 4:6.

[1407] Proverbs 11:1; Proverbs 20:10.

[1408] Deuteronomy 19:14; Proverbs 23:10.

[1409] Amos 8:5; Psalm 37:21.

[1410] Luke 16:10-12.

[1411] Ezekiel 22:29; Leviticus 25:17.

[1412] Matthew 23:25; Ezekiel 22:12.

[1413] Psalm 15:5.

[1414] Job 15:34.

[1415] 1 Corinthians 6:6-8; Proverbs 3:29-30.

[1416] Isaiah 5:8; Micah 2:2.

[1417] Proverbs 11:26.

[1418] Acts 19:19, 24-25.

[1419] Job 20:19; James 5:4; Proverbs 21:6.

[1420] Luke 12:15.

[1421] 1 Timothy 6:5; Colossians 3:2; Proverbs 23:5; Psalm 42:10.

[1422] Matthew 6:25, 31, 34; Ecclesiastes 5:12.

[1423] Psalm 37:1, 7; Psalm 73:3.

[1424] 2 Thessalonians 3:11; Proverbs 18:9.

[1425] Proverbs 21:17; Proverbs 23:20-21; Proverbs 28:19.

[1426] Ecclesiastes 4:8; Ecclesiastes 6:2; 1 Timothy 5:8.

[1427] Exodus 20:16.

[1428] Zechariah 8:16.

[1429] 3 John 1:12.

[1430] Proverbs 31:8-9.

[1431] Psalm 15:2.

[1432] 2 Chronicles 19:9.

[1433] 1 Samuel 19:4-5.

[1434] Joshua 7:19.

[1435] 2 Samuel 14:18-20.

[1436] Leviticus 19:15; Proverbs 14:5, 25.

[1437] 2 Corinthians 1:17-18; Ephesians 4:25.

[1438] Hebrews 6:9; 1 Corinthians 13:7.

[1439] Romans 1:8; 2 John 1:4; 3 John 3-4.

[1440] 2 Corinthians 2:4; 2 Corinthians 12:21.

[1441] Proverbs 17:9; 1 Peter 4:8.

[1442] 1 Corinthians 1:4-5, 7; 2 Timothy 1:4-5.

[1443] 1 Samuel 22:14.

[1444] 1 Corinthians 13:6-7.

[1445] Psalm 15:3.

[1446] Proverbs 25:23.

[1447] Proverbs 26:24-25.

[1448] Psalm 101:5.

[1449] Proverbs 22:1; John 8:49.

[1450] Psalm 15:4.

[1451] Philippians 4:8.

[1452] 1 Samuel 17:28; 2 Samuel 1:9-10, 15-16; 2 Samuel 16:3.

[1453] Leviticus 19:15; Habakkuk 1:4.

[1454] Proverbs 6:16, 19; Proverbs 19:5.

[1455] Acts 6:13.

[1456] Jeremiah 9:3, 5; Acts 24:2, 5; Psalm 3:1-4; Psalm 12:3-4.

[1457] Proverbs 17:15; 1 Kings 21:9-14.

[1458] Isaiah 5:23.

[1459] Psalm 119:69; Luke 16:5-7; Luke 19:8.

[1460] Leviticus 5:1; Acts 5:3, 8-9; 2 Timothy 4:6.

[1461] 1 Kings 1:6; Leviticus 19:17.

[1462] Isaiah 59:4.

[1463] Proverbs 29:11.

[1464] 1 Samuel 22:9-10; Psalm 52:1.

[1465] Psalm 56:5; John 2:19; Matthew 26:60-61.

[1466] Genesis 3:5; Genesis 26:7, 9.

[1467] Isaiah 59:13.

[1468] Leviticus 19:11; Colossians 3:9.

[1469] Psalm 50:20.

[1470] Psalm 15:3.

[1471] James 4:11; Jeremiah 38:4.

[1472] Leviticus 19:16.

[1473] Romans 1:29-30.

[1474] Genesis 21:9; Galatians 4:29.

[1475] 1 Corinthians 6:10.

[1476] Matthew 7:1.

[1477] Acts 28:4.

[1478] Genesis 38:24; Romans 2:1.

[1479] Nehemiah 6:6-8; Romans 3:8; Psalm 69:10; 1 Samuel 1:13-15; 2 Samuel 10:3.

[1480] Psalm 12:2-3.

[1481] 2 Timothy 3:2.

[1482] Luke 18:9, 11; Romans 12:16; 1 Corinthians 4:6; Acts 12:22; Exodus 4:10-14.

[1483] Job 4:6; Job 27:5-6.

[1484] Matthew 7:3-5.

[1485] Proverbs 28:13; Proverbs 30:20; Genesis 3:12-13; Genesis 4:9; Jeremiah 2:35; 2 Kings 5:25.

[1486] Genesis 9:22; Proverbs 25:9-10.

[1487] Exodus 23:1.

[1488] Proverbs 29:12.

[1489] Acts 7:56-57; Job 31:13-14.

[1490] 1 Corinthians 13:5; 1 Timothy 6:4.

[1491] Numbers 11:29; Matthew 21:15.

[1492] Ezra 4:12-13.

[1493] Jeremiah 48:27.

[1494] Psalm 35:15-16, 21; Matthew 27:28-29.

[1495] Jude 1:16; Acts 12:22.

[1496] Romans 1:31; 2 Timothy 3:3.

[1497] 1 Samuel 2:24.

[1498] 2 Samuel 13:12-13; Proverbs 5:8-9; Proverbs 6:33.

[1499] Exodus 20:17.

[1500] Hebrews 13:5; 1 Timothy 6:6.

[1501] Job 31:29; Psalm 122:7-9; 1 Timothy 1:5; Esther 10:3; 1 Corinthians 13:4-7.

[1502] 1 Kings 21:4; Esther 5:13; 1 Corinthians 10:10.

[1503] Galatians 5:26; James 3:14, 16.

[1504] Psalm 112:9-10; Nehemiah 2:10.

[1505] Romans 7:7-8; Romans 13:9; Colossians 3:5; Deuteronomy 5:21.

[1506] James 3:2; John 15:5; Romans 8:3.

[1507] Ecclesiastes 7:20; 1 John 1:8, 10; Galatians 5:17; Romans 7:18-19.

[1508] Genesis 6:5; Genesis 8:21.

[1509] Romans 3:9-19; James 3:2-13.

[1510] John 19:11; Ezekiel 8:6, 13, 15; 1 John 5:16; Psalm 78:17, 32, 56.

[1511] Jeremiah 2:8.

[1512] Job 32:7, 9; Ecclesiastes 4:13.

[1513] 1 Kings 11:4, 9.

[1514] 2 Samuel 12:14; 1 Corinthians 5:1.

[1515] James 4:17; Luke 12:47-48.

[1516] Jeremiah 5:4-5.

[1517] 2 Samuel 12:7-9; Ezekiel 8:11-12.

[1518] Romans 2:17-24.

[1519] Galatians 2:11-14.

[1520] Matthew 21:38-39.

[1521] 1 Samuel 2:25; Acts 5:4; Psalm 51:4.

[1522] Romans 2:4.

[1523] Malachi 1:8, 14.

[1524] Hebrews 2:2-3; Hebrews 12:25.

[1525] Hebrews 10:29; Matthew 12:31-32.

[1526] Ephesians 4:30.

[1527] Hebrews 6:4-6.

[1528] Jude 1:8; Numbers 12:8-9; Isaiah 3:5.

[1529] Proverbs 30:17; 2 Corinthians 12:15; Psalm 55:12-15.

[1530] Zephaniah 2:8, 10-11; Matthew 18:6; 1 Corinthians 6:8; Revelation 17:6.

[1531] 1 Corinthians 8:11-12; Romans 14:13, 15, 21.

[1532] Ezekiel 13:19; 1 Corinthians 8:12; Revelation 18:12-13; Matthew 23:15.

[1533] 1 Thessalonians 2:15-16; Joshua 22:20.

[1534] Proverbs 6:30-35.

[1535] Ezra 9:10-12; 1 Kings 11:9-10.

[1536] Colossians 3:5; 1 Timothy 6:10; Proverbs 5:8-12; Proverbs 6:32-33; Joshua 7:21.

[1537] James 1:14-15; Matthew 5:22; Micah 2:1.

[1538] Matthew 18:7; Romans 2:23-24.

[1539] Deuteronomy 22:22, 28-29; Proverbs 6:32-35.

[1540] Matthew 11:21-24; John 15:22.

[1541] Isaiah 1:3; Deuteronomy 32:6.

[1542] Amos 4:8-11; Jeremiah 5:8.

[1543] Romans 1:26-27.

[1544] Romans 1:32; Daniel 5:22; Titus 3:10-11.

[1545] Proverbs 29:1.

[1546] Titus 3:10; Matthew 18:17.

[1547] Proverbs 23:35; Proverbs 27:22.

[1548] Psalm 78:34-37; Jeremiah 2:20; Jeremiah 13:5-6, 20-21.

[1549] Ecclesiastes 5:4-6; Proverbs 20:25.

[1550] Leviticus 26:25.

[1551] Proverbs 2:17; Ezekiel 17:18-19.

[1552] Psalm 36:4.

[1553] Jeremiah 6:16.

[1554] Numbers 15:30; Exodus 21:14.

[1555] Jeremiah 3:3; Proverbs 7:13.

[1556] Psalm 52:1.

[1557] 3 John 1:10.

[1558] Numbers 14:22.

[1559] Zechariah 7:11-12.

[1560] Proverbs 2:14.

[1561] Isaiah 57:17.

[1562] Jeremiah 34:8-11; 2 Peter 2:20-22.

[1563] 2 Kings 5:26.

[1564] Jeremiah 7:10; Isaiah 26:10.

[1565] Ezekiel 23:37-39.

[1566] Isaiah 58:3-5; Numbers 25:6-7.

[1567] 1 Corinthians 11:20-21.

[1568] Jeremiah 7:8-10, 14-15; John 13:27, 30.

[1569] Ezra 9:13-14.

[1570] 2 Samuel 16:22; 1 Samuel 2:22-24.

[1571] James 2:10-11.

[1572] Exodus 20:1-2.

[1573] Habakkuk 1:13; Leviticus 10:3; Leviticus 11:44-45.

[1574] 1 John 3:4; Romans 7:12.

[1575] Ephesians 5:6; Galatians 3:10.

[1576] Lamentations 3:39; Deuteronomy 28:15-68.

[1577] Matthew 25:41.

[1578] Hebrews 9:22; 1 Peter 1:18-19.

[1579] Acts 16:30-31; Acts 20:21; Matthew 3:7-8; Luke 13:3, 5; John 3:16, 18.

[1580] Proverbs 2:1-5; Proverbs 8:33-36.

[1581] Matthew 28:19-20; Acts 2:42, 46-47.

[1582] Nehemiah 8:8; Acts 26:18; Psalm 19:8.

[1583] 1 Corinthians 14:24-25; 2 Chronicles 34:18-19, 26-28.

[1584] Acts 2:37, 41; Acts 8:27-39.

[1585] 2 Corinthians 3:18.

[1586] 2 Corinthians 10:4-6; Romans 6:17.

[1587] Matthew 4:4, 7, 10; Ephesians 6:16-17; Psalm 19:11; 1 Corinthians 10:11.

[1588] Acts 20:32; 2 Timothy 3:15-17.

[1589] Romans 1:16; Romans 10:13-17; Romans 15:4; Romans 16:25; 1 Thessalonians 3:2, 10-11, 13.

[1590] Deuteronomy 31:9, 11-13; Nehemiah 8:2-3; Nehemiah 9:3-5.

[1591] Deuteronomy 17:19; Revelation 1:3; John 5:39; Isaiah 34:16.

[1592] Deuteronomy 6:6-9; Genesis 18:17, 19; Psalm 78:5-7.

[1593] 1 Corinthians 14:6, 9, 11-12, 15-16, 24, 27-28.

[1594] Psalm 19:10; Nehemiah 8:3-10; Exodus 24:7; 2 Chronicles 34:27; Isaiah 66:2.

[1595] 2 Peter 1:19-21.

[1596] Luke 24:45; 2 Corinthians 3:13-16.

[1597] Deuteronomy 17:10, 20.

[1598] Acts 17:11.

[1599] Acts 8:30, 34; Luke 10:26-28.

[1600] Psalm 1:2; Psalm 119:97.

[1601] 2 Chronicles 24:21.

[1602] Proverbs 3:5; Deuteronomy 33:3.

[1603] Proverbs 2:1-6; Psalm 119:18; Nehemiah 7:6, 8.

[1604] 1 Timothy 3:2, 6; Ephesians 4:8-11; Hosea 4:6; Malachi 2:7; 2 Corinthians 3:6.

[1605] Jeremiah 14:15; Romans 10:15; Hebrews 5:4; 1 Corinthians 12:28-29; 1 Timothy 3:10; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 5:22.

[1606] Titus 2:1, 8.

[1607] Acts 18:25.

[1608] 2 Timothy 4:2.

[1609] 1 Corinthians 14:19.

[1610] 1 Corinthians 2:4.

[1611] Jeremiah 23:28; 1 Corinthians 4:1-2.

[1612] Acts 20:27.

[1613] Colossians 1:28; 2 Timothy 2:15.

[1614] 1 Corinthians 3:2; Hebrews 5:12-14; Luke 12:42.

[1615] Acts 18:25.

[1616] 2 Corinthians 5:13-14; Philippians 1:15-17.

[1617] Colossians 4:12; 2 Corinthians 12:15.

[1618] 2 Corinthians 2:17; 2 Corinthians 4:2.

[1619] 1 Thessalonians 2:4-6; John 7:18.

[1620] 1 Corinthians 9:19-22.

[1621] 2 Corinthians 12:19; Ephesians 4:12.

[1622] 1 Timothy 4:16; Acts 26:16-18.

[1623] Proverbs 8:34.

[1624] 1 Peter 2:1-2; Luke 8:18.

[1625] Psalm 119:18; Ephesians 6:18-19.

[1626] Acts 17:11.

[1627] Hebrews 4:2.

[1628] 2 Thessalonians 2:10.

[1629] James 1:21.

[1630] Acts 17:11.

[1631] 1 Thessalonians 2:13.

[1632] Luke 9:44; Hebrews 2:1.

[1633] Luke 24:14; Deuteronomy 6:6-7.

[1634] Proverbs 2:1; Psalm 119:11.

[1635] Luke 8:15; James 1:25.

[1636] 1 Peter 3:21; Acts 8:13, 23; 1 Corinthians 3:6-7; 1 Corinthians 12:13.

[1637] Genesis 17:7, 10; Exodus 12; Matthew 26:26-28; Matthew 28:19.

[1638] Romans 4:11; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25.

[1639] Romans 15:8; Exodus 12:48.

[1640] Acts 2:38; 1 Corinthians 10:16.

[1641] Romans 4:11; Galatians 3:27.

[1642] Romans 6:3-4; 1 Corinthians 10:21.

[1643] Ephesians 4:2-5; 1 Corinthians 12:13.

[1644] Ephesians 2:11-12; Genesis 34:14.

[1645] Matthew 3:11; 1 Peter 3:21; Romans 2:28-29.

[1646] Matthew 26:26-28; Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:20, 23.

[1647] Matthew 28:19.

[1648] Galatians 3:27.

[1649] Mark 1:4; Revelation 1:5.

[1650] Titus 3:5; Ephesians 5:26.

[1651] Galatians 3:26-27.

[1652] 1 Corinthians 15:29; Romans 6:5.

[1653] 1 Corinthians 12:13.

[1654] Romans 6:4.

[1655] Acts 2:38; Acts 8:36-37.

[1656] Genesis 17:7, 9; Galatians 3:9, 14; Colossians 2:11-12; Acts 2:38-39; Romans 4:11-12; Romans 11:16; 1 Corinthians 7:14; Matthew 28:19; Luke 18:15-16.

[1657] Colossians 2:11-12; Romans 6:4, 6, 11.

[1658] Romans 6:3-5.

[1659] 1 Corinthians 1:11-13; Romans 6:2-3.

[1660] Romans 4:11-12; 1 Peter 3:21.

[1661] Romans 6:3-5.

[1662] Galatians 3:26-27.

[1663] Romans 6:22.

[1664] Acts 2:38.

[1665] 1 Corinthians 12:13, 25-27.

[1666] Luke 22:20.

[1667] Matthew 26:26-28; 1 Corinthians 11:13-26.

[1668] 1 Corinthians 10:16.

[1669] 1 Corinthians 11:24.

[1670] 1 Corinthians 10:14-16, 21.

[1671] 1 Corinthians 10:17.

[1672] 1 Corinthians 11:23-24; Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-24; Luke 22:19-20.

[1673] Acts 3:21.

[1674] Matthew 26:26, 28.

[1675] 1 Corinthians 11:24-29.

[1676] 1 Corinthians 10:16.

[1677] 1 Corinthians 11:28.

[1678] 2 Corinthians 13:5.

[1679] 1 Corinthians 5:7; Exodus 12:15.

[1680] 1 Corinthians 11:29.

[1681] 1 Corinthians 13:5; Matthew 26:28.

[1682] Zechariah 12:10; 1 Corinthians 11:31.

[1683] 1 Corinthians 10:16-17; Acts 2:46-47.

[1684] 1 Corinthians 5:8; 1 Corinthians 11:18, 20.

[1685] Matthew 5:23-24.

[1686] Isaiah 55:1; John 7:37.

[1687] 1 Corinthians 5:7-8.

[1688] 1 Corinthians 11:25-26, 28; Hebrews 10:21-22, 24; Psalm 26:6.

[1689] 1 Corinthians 11:24-25.

[1690] 2 Chronicles 30:18-19; Matthew 26:26.

[1691] Isaiah 1:10; 1 John 5:13; Psalm 77:1-12; Psalm 88; Jonah 2:4, 7.

[1692] Isaiah 54:7-10; Matthew 5:3-4; Psalm 31:22; Psalm 73:13, 22-23.

[1693] Philippians 3:8-9; Psalm 10:17; Psalm 42:1-2, 5, 11.

[1694] 2 Timothy 2:19; Isaiah 1:10; Psalm 66:18-20.

[1695] Isaiah 40:11, 29, 31; Matthew 11:28; Matthew 12:20; Matthew 26:28.

[1696] Mark 9:24.

[1697] Acts 2:37; Acts 16:30.

[1698] Romans 4:11; 1 Corinthians 11:28.

[1699] 1 Corinthians 5; 1 Corinthians 11:27-31; Matthew 7:6; Jude 1:23; 1 Timothy 5:22.

[1700] 2 Corinthians 2:7.

[1701] Leviticus 10:3; Hebrews 12:18; Psalm 5:7; 1 Corinthians 11:17, 26-27.

[1702] Exodus 24:8; Matthew 26:28.

[1703] 1 Corinthians 11:29.

[1704] Luke 22:19.

[1705] 1 Corinthians 10:3-5, 11, 14; 1 Corinthians 11:26.

[1706] 1 Corinthians 11:31.

[1707] Zechariah 12:10.

[1708] Revelation 22:17.

[1709] John 6:35.

[1710] John 1:16.

[1711] Philippians 1:16.

[1712] Psalm 63:4-5; 2 Chronicles 30:21.

[1713] Psalm 22:26.

[1714] Jeremiah 1:5; Psalm 1:5; Acts 2:42.

[1715] Psalm 28:7; Psalm 85:8; 1 Corinthians 11:17, 30-31.

[1716] 2 Chronicles 30:21-16; Acts 2:42, 46.

[1717] Psalm 36:10; Song of Solomon 3:4; 1 Chronicles 29:18.

[1718] 1 Corinthians 10:3-5, 12.

[1719] Psalm 50:14.

[1720] 1 Corinthians 11:25-26; Acts 2:42, 46.

[1721] Song of Solomon 5:1-6; Ecclesiastes 5:1-6.

[1722] Psalm 42:5, 8; Psalm 43:3-5; Psalm 123:1-2.

[1723] 2 Chronicles 30:18-19; Isaiah 1:16, 18.

[1724] 2 Corinthians 7:11; 1 Chronicles 15:12-14.

[1725] Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23.

[1726] Romans 6:3-4; 1 Corinthians 10:16.

[1727] Romans 4:11; Colossians 2:12; Matthew 26:27-28.

[1728] John 1:33; Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 4:1; 1 Corinthians 11:23; Hebrews 5:4.

[1729] Matthew 28:19-20; 1 Corinthians 11:26.

[1730] Matthew 3:11; Titus 3:5; Galatians 3:27.

[1731] Genesis 17:7, 9; Acts 2:38-39; 1 Corinthians 7:14.

[1732] 1 Corinthians 11:23-26.

[1733] 1 Corinthians 10:16.

[1734] 1 Corinthians 11:28-29.

[1735] Psalm 62:8.

[1736] John 16:23.

[1737] Romans 8:26.

[1738] Psalm 32:5-6; Daniel 9:4.

[1739] Philippians 4:6.

[1740] 1 Kings 8:39; Acts 1:24; Romans 8:27.

[1741] Psalm 65:2.

[1742] Micah 7:18.

[1743] Psalm 145:18-19.

[1744] Romans 10:14.

[1745] Matthew 4:10.

[1746] 1 Corinthians 1:2.

[1747] Psalm 50:15.

[1748] Romans 10:14.

[1749] John 14:13-14; John 16:24; Daniel 9:17.

[1750] Matthew 7:21.

[1751] Hebrews 4:14-16; 1 John 5:13-15.

[1752] John 14:6; Isaiah 59:2; Ephesians 3:12.

[1753] John 6:27; Hebrews 7:25-27; 1 Timothy 2:5.

[1754] Colossians 3:17; Hebrews 13:15.

[1755] Romans 8:26-27; Psalm 10:17; Zechariah 12:10.

[1756] Ephesians 6:18; Psalm 28:9.

[1757] 1 Timothy 2:1-2.

[1758] Colossians 4:3.

[1759] Genesis 32:11.

[1760] James 5:16.

[1761] Matthew 5:44.

[1762] 1 Timothy 2:1-2.

[1763] John 17:20; 2 Samuel 7:29.

[1764] 2 Samuel 12:21-23.

[1765] 1 John 5:16.

[1766] Matthew 6:9.

[1767] Psalm 51:18; Psalm 122:6.

[1768] Matthew 7:11.

[1769] Psalm 125:4.

[1770] 1 John 5:14.

[1771] Ecclesiastes 5:1.

[1772] Genesis 18:27; Genesis 32:10.

[1773] Luke 15:17-19.

[1774] Luke 18:13-14.

[1775] Psalm 51:17.

[1776] Philippians 4:6.

[1777] 1 Samuel 1:15; 1 Samuel 2:1.

[1778] 1 Corinthians 14:15.

[1779] Mark 11:24; James 1:6.

[1780] Psalm 17:1; Psalm 145:18.

[1781] James 5:16.

[1782] 1 Timothy 2:8.

[1783] Ephesians 6:18.

[1784] Micah 7:7.

[1785] Matthew 26:39.

[1786] 1 John 5:14.

[1787] Matthew 6:2-13; Luke 11:2-4.

[1788] Matthew 6:9; Luke 11:2.

[1789] Matthew 6:9.

[1790] Luke 11:13; Romans 8:15.

[1791] Isaiah 64:9.

[1792] Psalm 123:1; Lamentations 3:41.

[1793] Isaiah 63:15-16; Nehemiah 1:4-6.

[1794] Acts 12:5.

[1795] Matthew 6:9.

[1796] 2 Corinthians 3:5; Psalm 51:15.

[1797] Psalm 67:2-3.

[1798] Psalm 83:18.

[1799] Psalm 86:10-13, 15.

[1800] 2 Thessalonians 3:1; Psalm 138:1-3; Psalm 147:19-20; 2 Corinthians 2:14-15.

[1801] Psalm 8; Psalm 145.

[1802] Psalm 19:14; Psalm 103:1.

[1803] Philippians 1:9, 11.

[1804] Psalm 67:1-4.

[1805] Ephesians 1:17-18.

[1806] Psalm 97:7.

[1807] Psalm 74:18, 22-23.

[1808] 2 Kings 19:15-16.

[1809] 2 Chronicles 20:6, 10-12; Psalm 83; Psalm 140:4, 8.

[1810] Matthew 6:10.

[1811] Ephesians 2:2-3.

[1812] Psalm 68:1, 18; Revelation 12:10-11.

[1813] 2 Thessalonians 3:1.

[1814] Romans 10:1.

[1815] John 17:9, 20; Romans 11:25-26; Psalm 67.

[1816] Matthew 9:38; 2 Thessalonians 3:1.

[1817] Malachi 1:11; Zephaniah 3:9.

[1818] 1 Timothy 2:1-2.

[1819] Acts 4:29-30; Ephesians 6:18-20; Romans 15:29-30, 32; 2 Thessalonians 1:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:16-17.

[1820] Ephesians 3:14-20.

[1821] Revelation 22:20.

[1822] Isaiah 64:1-2; Revelation 4:8-11.

[1823] Matthew 6:10.

[1824] Romans 7:18; Job 21:14; 1 Corinthians 2:14.

[1825] Romans 8:7.

[1826] Exodus 17:7; Numbers 14:2.

[1827] Ephesians 2:2.

[1828] Ephesians 1:17-18.

[1829] Ephesians 3:16.

[1830] Matthew 26:40-41.

[1831] Jeremiah 31:18-19.

[1832] Psalm 119:1, 8, 35-36; Acts 21:14.

[1833] Micah 6:8.

[1834] Psalm 100:2; Job 1:21; 2 Samuel 15:25-26.

[1835] Isaiah 38:3.

[1836] Psalm 119:4-5.

[1837] Romans 12:11.

[1838] Psalm 119:80.

[1839] Psalm 119:112.

[1840] Isaiah 6:2-3; Psalm 103:20-21; Matthew 18:10.

[1841] Matthew 6:11.

[1842] Genesis 2:17; Genesis 3:17; Romans 8:20-22; Jeremiah 5:25; Deuteronomy 28:15-68.

[1843] Deuteronomy 8:3.

[1844] Genesis 32:10.

[1845] Deuteronomy 8:17-18.

[1846] Jeremiah 6:13; Mark 7:21-22.

[1847] Hosea 12:7.

[1848] James 4:3.

[1849] Genesis 28:20; Genesis 43:12-14; Ephesians 4:28; 2 Thessalonians 3:11-12; Philippians 4:6.

[1850] 2 Timothy 4:3-5.

[1851] 1 Timothy 6:6-8.

[1852] Proverbs 30:8-9.

[1853] Matthew 6:12.

[1854] Romans 3:9-22; Matthew 18:24-25; Psalm 130:3-4.

[1855] Romans 3:24-26; Hebrews 9:22.

[1856] Ephesians 1:6-7.

[1857] 2 Peter 1:2.

[1858] Hosea 14:2; Jeremiah 14:7.

[1859] Romans 15:13; Psalm 51:7-10, 12.

[1860] Luke 11:4; Matthew 6:14-15; Matthew 18:35.

[1861] Matthew 6:13.

[1862] 2 Chronicles 32:31.

[1863] 1 Chronicles 21:1.

[1864] Luke 21:34; Mark 4:19.

[1865] James 1:14.

[1866] Galatians 5:17.

[1867] Matthew 26:41.

[1868] Matthew 26:69-72; Galatians 2:11-14; 2 Chronicles 18:3; 2 Chronicles 19:2.

[1869] Romans 7:23-24; 1 Chronicles 21:1-4; 2 Chronicles 16:7-10.

[1870] Psalm 81:11-12.

[1871] John 17:15.

[1872] Psalm 51:10; Psalm 119:133.

[1873] 2 Corinthians 12:7-8.

[1874] 1 Corinthians 10:12-13.

[1875] Hebrews 13:20-21.

[1876] Matthew 26:41; Psalm 19:13.

[1877] Ephesians 3:14-17; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; Jude 1:24.

[1878] Psalm 51:12.

[1879] 1 Peter 5:8-10.

[1880] 2 Corinthians 13:7, 9.

[1881] Romans 16:20; Zechariah 3:2; Luke 22:31-32.

[1882] John 17:15; 1 Thessalonians 5:23.

[1883] Although this conclusion is not found in the oldest yet discovered manuscripts, it is found in the majority of Byzantine texts, and its content perfectly harmonizes with what is said about the kingdom in Daniel 7:14.

[1884] Matthew 6:13.

[1885] Romans 15:30.

[1886] Daniel 9:4, 7-9, 16-19.

[1887] Philippians 4:6.

[1888] 1 Chronicles 29:10-13.

[1889] Ephesians 3:20-21; Luke 11:13.

[1890] 2 Chronicles 20:6, 11.

[1891] 2 Chronicles 14:11.

[1892] 1 Corinthians 14:16; Revelation 22:20-21.

[1893] Psalm 86:9; Isaiah 60:21; Romans 11:36; 1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Corinthians 10:31; Revelation 4:11.

[1894] Psalm 16:5-11; Psalm 144:15; Isaiah 12:2; Luke 2:10; Philippians 4:4; Revelation 21:3-4.

[1895] Matthew 19:4-5 with Genesis 2:24; Luke 24:27, 44; 1 Corinthians 2:13; 1 Corinthians 14:37; 2 Peter 1:20-21; 2 Peter 3:2, 15-16.

[1896] Deuteronomy 4:2; Psalm 19:7-11; Isaiah 8:20; John 15:11; John 20:30-31; Acts 17:11; 2 Timothy 3:15-17; 1 John 1:4.

[1897] Genesis 1:1; John 5:39; John 20:31; Romans 10:17; 2 Timothy 3:15.

[1898] Deuteronomy 10:12-13; Joshua 1:8; Psalm 119:105; Micah 6:8; 2 Timothy 3:16-17.

[1899] Deuteronomy 4:15-19; Luke 24:39; John 1:18; John 4:24; Acts 17:29.

[1900] 1 Kings 8:27; Psalm 139:7-10; Psalm 145:3; Psalm 147:5; Jeremiah 23:24; Romans 11:33-36.

[1901] Deuteronomy 33:27; Psalm 90:2; Psalm 102:12, 24-27; Revelation 1:4, 8.

[1902] Psalm 33:11; Malachi 3:6; Hebrews 1:12; Hebrews 6:17-18; Hebrews 13:8; James 1:17.

[1903] Exodus 3:14; Psalm 115:2-3; 1 Timothy 1:17; 1 Timothy 6:15-16.

[1904] Psalm 104:24; Romans 11:33-34; Hebrews 4:13; 1 John 3:20.

[1905] Genesis 17:1; Psalm 62:11; Jeremiah 32:17; Matthew 19:26; Revelation 1:8.

[1906] Hebrews 1:13; 1 Peter 1:15-16; 1 John 3:3, 5; Revelation 15:4.

[1907] Genesis 18:25; Exodus 34:6-7; Deuteronomy 32:4; Psalm 96:13; Romans 3:5, 26.

[1908] Psalm 103:5; Psalm 107:8; Matthew 19:17; Romans 2:4.

[1909] Exodus 34:6; Deuteronomy 32:4; Psalm 86:15; Psalm 117:2; Hebrews 6:18.

[1910] Deuteronomy 6:4; Isaiah 44:6; Isaiah 45:21-22; 1 Corinthians 8:4-6.

[1911] Jeremiah 10:10; John 17:3; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 1 John 5:20.

[1912] Matthew 3:16-17; Matthew 28:19; 2 Corinthians 13:14; 1 Peter 1:2.

[1913] Psalm 45:6; John 1:1; John 17:5; Acts 5:3-4; Romans 9:5; Colossians 2:9; sundry judicial laws

Jude 24-25.

[1914] Psalm 33:11; Isaiah 14:24; Acts 2:23; Ephesians 1:11-12.

[1915] Psalm 148:8; Isaiah 40:26; Daniel 4:35; Acts 4:24-28; Revelation 4:11.

[1916] Genesis 1:1; Psalm 33:6, 9; Hebrews 11:3.

[1917] Genesis 1:31.

[1918] Genesis 1:27.

[1919] Colossians 3:10.

[1920] Ephesians 4:24.

[1921] Genesis 1:28; Psalm 8.

[1922] Psalm 145:17.

[1923] Psalm 104:24.

[1924] Hebrews 1:3.

[1925] Nehemiah 9:6.

[1926] Ephesians 1:19-22.

[1927] Psalm 36:6; Proverbs 16:33; Matthew 10:30.

[1928] Genesis 2:16-17; James 2:10.

[1929] Genesis 3:6-8, 13; 2 Corinthians 11:3.

[1930] Leviticus 5:17; James 4:17; 1 John 3:4.

[1931] Genesis 3:6.

[1932] Genesis 2:16-17; James 2:10.

[1933] Romans 5:12-21; 1 Corinthians 15:22.

[1934] Genesis 3:16-19, 23; Romans 3:16; Romans 5:12; Ephesians 2:1.

[1935] Romans 5:12, 19.

[1936] Romans 3:10; Colossians 3:10; Ephesians 4:24.

[1937] Psalm 51:5; John 3:6; Romans 3:18; Romans 8:7-8; Ephesians 2:3.

[1938] Genesis 6:5; Psalm 53:1-3; Matthew 15:19; Romans 3:10-18, 23; Galatians 5:19-21; James 1:14-15.

[1939] Genesis 3:8, 24; John 8:34, 42, 44; Ephesians 2:12; Ephesians 4:18.

[1940] John 3:36; Romans 1:18; Ephesians 2:3; Ephesians 5:6.

[1941] Galatians 3:10; Revelation 22:3.

[1942] Genesis 3:16-19; Job 5:7; Ecclesiastes 2:22-23; Romans 8:18-23.

[1943] Ezekiel 18:4; Romans 5:12; Romans 6:23.

[1944] Matthew 25:41, 46; 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Revelation 14:9-11.

[1945] Acts 13:48; Ephesians 1:4-5; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14.

[1946] Genesis 3:15; Genesis 17:7; Exodus 19:5-6; Jeremiah 31:31-34; Matthew 20:28; 1 Corinthians 11:25; Hebrews 9:15.

[1947] John 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Timothy 2:5-6.

[1948] Psalm 2:7; Matthew 3:17; Matthew 17:5; John 1:18.

[1949] Isaiah 9:6; Matthew 1:23; John 1:14; Galatians 4:4.

[1950] Acts 1:11; Hebrews 7:24-25.

[1951] Philippians 2:7; Hebrews 2:14, 17.

[1952] Luke 1:27, 31, 35.

[1953] 2 Corinthians 5:21; Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 7:26; 1 John 3:5.

[1954] Deuteronomy 18:18; Acts 2:33; Acts 3:22-23; Hebrews 1:1-2.

[1955] Hebrews 4:14-15; Hebrews 5:5-6.

[1956] Isaiah 9:6-7; Luke 1:32-33; John 18:37; 1 Corinthians 15:25.

[1957] Luke 4:18-19, 21; Acts 1:1-2; Hebrews 2:3.

[1958] John 15:26-27; Acts 1:8; 1 Peter 1:11.

[1959] John 4:41-42; John 20:30-31.

[1960] Isaiah 53; Acts 8:32-35; Hebrews 9:26-28; Hebrews 10:12.

[1961] Romans 5:10-11; 2 Corinthians 5:18; Colossians 1:21-22.

[1962] Romans 8:34; Hebrews 7:25; Hebrews 9:24.

[1963] Psalm 110:3; Matthew 28:18-20; John 17:2; Colossians 1:13.

[1964] Psalm 2:6-9; Psalm 110:1-2; Matthew 12:28; 1 Corinthians 15:24-26; Colossians 2:15.

[1965] Luke 2:7; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Galatians 4:4.

[1966] Galatians 4:4.

[1967] Isaiah 53:3; Luke 9:58; John 4:6; John 11:35; Hebrews 2:18.

[1968] Psalm 22:1; Matthew 27:46; Isaiah 53:10; 1 John 2:2.

[1969] Galatians 3:13; Philippians 2:8.

[1970] Matthew 12:40; 1 Corinthians 15:3-4.

[1971] 1 Corinthians 15:4.

[1972] Psalm 68:18; Acts 1:11; Ephesians 4:8.

[1973] Psalm 110:1; Acts 2:33-34; Hebrews 1:3.

[1974] Matthew 16:27; Acts 17:31.

[1975] Titus 3:4-7.

[1976] Romans 10:17; 1 Corinthians 2:12-16; Ephesians 2:8; Philippians 1:29.

[1977] John 15:5; 1 Corinthians 1:9; Ephesians 3:17.

[1978] Acts 26:18; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 12; 2 Corinthians 4:6; Ephesians 1:17-18.

[1979] Deuteronomy 30:6; Ezekiel 36:26-27; John 3:5; Titus 3:5.

[1980] John 6:44-45; Acts 16:14.

[1981] Isaiah 45:22; Matthew 11:28-30; Revelation 22:17.

[1982] Romans 8:30; 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 6:11; Ephesians 1:5.

[1983] Romans 3:24.

[1984] Romans 4:6-8; 2 Corinthians 5:19.

[1985] 2 Corinthians 5:21.

[1986] Romans 4:6, 11; Romans 5:19.

[1987] Galatians 2:16; Philippians 3:9.

[1988] 1 John 3:1.

[1989] John 1:12; Romans 8:17.

[1990] Ezekiel 36:27; Philippians 2:13; 2 Thessalonians 2:13.

[1991] 2 Corinthians 5:17; Ephesians 4:23-24; 1 Thessalonians 5:23.

[1992] Ezekiel 36:25-27; Romans 6:4, 6, 12-14; 2 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Peter 2:24.

[1993] Romans 5:5.

[1994] Romans 5:1.

[1995] Romans 14:17.

[1996] 2 Peter 3:18.

[1997] Philippians 1:6; 1 Peter 1:5.

[1998] Hebrews 12:23.

[1999] Luke 23:43; 2 Corinthians 5:6, 8; Philippians 1:23.

[2000] 1 Thessalonians 4:14.

[2001] Daniel 12:2; John 5:28-29; Acts 24:15.

[2002] 1 Corinthians 15:42-43.

[2003] Matthew 25:33-34, 46.

[2004] Romans 8:29; 1 John 3:2.

[2005] Psalm 16:11; 1 Thessalonians 4:17.

[2006] Deuteronomy 29:29; Micah 6:8; 1 John 5:2-3.

[2007] Romans 2:14-15; Romans 10:5.

[2008] Deuteronomy 4:13; Matthew 19:17-19.

[2009] Matthew 22:37-40.

[2010] Exodus 20:2; Deuteronomy 5:6.

[2011] Luke 1:74-75; 1 Peter 1:14-19.

[2012] Exodus 20:3; Deuteronomy 5:7.

[2013] 1 Chronicles 28:9; Isaiah 45:20-25; Matthew 4:10.

[2014] Psalm 14:1.

[2015] Romans 1:20-21.

[2016] Psalm 81:10-11.

[2017] Ezekiel 8:16-18; Romans 1:25.

[2018] Deuteronomy 30:17-18; Psalm 44:20-21; Ezekiel 8:12.

[2019] Exodus 20:4-6; Deuteronomy 5:8-10.

[2020] Deuteronomy 12:32; Matthew 28:20.

[2021] Deuteronomy 4:15-19; Romans 1:22-23.

[2022] Leviticus 10:1-2; Jeremiah 19:4-5; Colossians 2:18-23.

[2023] Psalm 95:2-3, 6-7; Psalm 96:9-10.

[2024] Exodus 19:5; Psalm 45:11; Isaiah 54:5.

[2025] Exodus 34:14; 1 Corinthians 10:22.

[2026] Exodus 20:7; Deuteronomy 5:11.

[2027] Deuteronomy 10:20; Psalm 29:2; Matthew 6:9.

[2028] 1 Chronicles 29:10-13; Revelation 15:3-4.

[2029] Acts 2:42; 1 Corinthians 11:27-28.

[2030] Psalm 138:2; Revelation 22:18-19.

[2031] Psalm 107:21-22; Revelation 4:11.

[2032] Leviticus 19:12; Matthew 5:33-37; James 5:12.

[2033] Deuteronomy 28:58-59; 1 Samuel 3:13; 1 Samuel 4:11.

[2034] Exodus 20:8-11; Deuteronomy 5:12-15.

[2035] Exodus 31:13, 16-17.

[2036] Genesis 2:2-3; Exodus 20:11.

[2037] Mark 2:27-28; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:2; Revelation 1:10.

[2038] Exodus 20:10; Nehemiah 13:15-22; Isaiah 58:13-14.

[2039] Exodus 20:8; Leviticus 23:3; Luke 4:16; Acts 20:7.

[2040] Matthew 12:1-13.

[2041] Nehemiah 13:15-22; Isaiah 58:13-14; Amos 8:4-6.

[2042] Exodus 20:9; Exodus 31:15; Leviticus 23:3.

[2043] Genesis 2:2-3; Exodus 20:11; Exodus 31:17.

[2044] Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16.

[2045] Romans 13:1, 7; Ephesians 5:21-22, 24; Ephesians 6:1, 4-5, 9; 1 Peter 2:17.

[2046] Matthew 15:4-6; Romans 13:8.

[2047] Exodus 20:12; Deuteronomy 5:16; Ephesians 6:2-3.

[2048] Exodus 20:13; Deuteronomy 5:17.

[2049] Ephesians 5:28-29.

[2050] Genesis 9:6; Matthew 5:22; 1 John 3:15.

[2051] Exodus 20:14; Deuteronomy 5:18.

[2052] 1 Corinthians 7:2-3, 5; 1 Thessalonians 4:3-5.

[2053] Matthew 5:28; Ephesians 5:3-4.

[2054] Exodus 20:15; Deuteronomy 5:19.

[2055] Leviticus 25:35; Ephesians 4:28b; Philippians 2:4.

[2056] Proverbs 28:19ff, Ephesians 4:28a; 1 Thessalonians 3:10; 1 Timothy 5:8.

[2057] Exodus 20:16; Deuteronomy 5:20.

[2058] Zechariah 8:16; Acts 25:10; 3 John 12.

[2059] Proverbs 14:5, 25.

[2060] Leviticus 19:16; Psalm 15:3; Proverbs 6:16-19; Luke 3:14.

[2061] Exodus 20:17; Deuteronomy 5:21.

[2062] Psalm 34:1; Philippians 4:11; 1 Timothy 6:6; Hebrews 13:5.

[2063] Luke 15:6, 9, 11-32; Romans 12:15; Philippians 2:4.

[2064] 1 Corinthians 10:10; James 3:14-16.

[2065] Galatians 5:26; Colossians 3:5.

[2066] Genesis 8:21; Romans 3:9ff, 23.

[2067] Ezekiel 8:6, 13, 15; Matthew 11:20-24; John 19:11.

[2068] Matthew 25:41; Galatians 3:10; Ephesians 5:6; James 2:10.

[2069] Mark 1:15; Acts 20:21.

[2070] Acts 2:38; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25; Colossians 3:16.

[2071] Ephesians 2:8-9; cf. Romans 4:16.

[2072] John 20:30-31; Galatians 2:15-16; Philippians 3:3-11.

[2073] Acts 11:18; 2 Timothy 2:25.

[2074] Psalm 51:1-4; Joel 2:13; Luke 15:7, 10; Acts 2:37.

[2075] Jeremiah 31:18-19; Luke 1:16-17; 1 Thessalonians 1:9.

[2076] 2 Chronicles 7:14; Psalm 119:57-64; Matthew 3:8; 2 Corinthians 7:10.

[2077] Matthew 28:18-20; Acts 2:41-42.

[2078] Nehemiah 8:8-9; Acts 20:32; Romans 10:14-17; 2 Timothy 3:15-17.

[2079] Deuteronomy 6:6ff, Psalm 119:18; 1 Peter 2:1-2.

[2080] Psalm 119:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:10; Hebrews 4:2; James 1:22-25.

[2081] 1 Corinthians 3:7 cf. 1 Corinthians 1:12-17.

[2082] Matthew 28:19; Matthew 26:26-28; Mark 14:22-25; Luke 22:19-20; 1 Corinthians 1:22-26.

[2083] Galatians 3:27; 1 Corinthians 10:16-17.

[2084] Matthew 28:19.

[2085] 1 Corinthians 11:23-26.

[2086] Matthew 28:19.

[2087] Acts 2:38-42; Acts 22:16; Romans 6:3-4; Galatians 3:26-27; 1 Peter 3:21.

[2088] Acts. 2:41; Acts 8:12, 36, 38; Acts 18:8.

[2089] Genesis 17:7, 9-11; Acts 2:38-39; Acts 16:32-33; Colossians 2:11-12.

[2090] Luke 22:19-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26.

[2091] 1 Corinthians 10:16-17.

[2092] 1 Corinthians 11:27-32.

[2093] Psalm 10:17; Psalm 62:8; Matthew 7:7-8.

[2094] 1 John 5:14.

[2095] John 16:23-24.

[2096] Psalm 32:5-6; Daniel 9:4-19; 1 John 1:9.

[2097] Psalm 103:1-5; Psalm 136; Philippians 4:6.

[2098] 1 John 5:14.

[2099] Matthew 6:9-13.

[2100] Psalm 95:6.

[2101] Ephesians 3:12.

[2102] Matthew 7:9-11; cf. Luke 11:11-13; Romans 8:15.

[2103] Ephesians 3:20.

[2104] Ephesians 6:18; 1 Timothy 2:1-2.

[2105] Psalm 67:1-3; Psalm 99:3; Psalm 100:3-4.

[2106] Romans 11:33-36; Revelation 4:11.

[2107] Matthew 12:25-28; Romans 16:20; 1 John 3:8.

[2108] Psalm 72:8-11; Matthew 24:14; 1 Corinthians 15:24-25.

[2109] Psalm 119:5; Luke 22:32; 2 Thessalonians 3:1-5.

[2110] Revelation 22:20.

[2111] Psalm 19:14; Psalm 119; 1 Thessalonians 5:23; Hebrews 13:20-21.

[2112] Psalm 103:20-21; Hebrews 1:14.

[2113] Proverbs 30:8-9; Matthew 6:31-34; Philippians 4:11, 19; 1 Timothy 6:6-8.

[2114] Psalm 51:1-2, 7, 9; Daniel 9:17-19; 1 John 1:7.

[2115] Matthew 18:21-35; Ephesians 4:32; Colossians 3:13.

[2116] Psalm 19:13; Matthew 26:41; John 17:15.

[2117] Luke 22:31-32; 1 Corinthians 10:13; 2 Corinthians 12:7-9; Hebrews 2:18.

[2118] Daniel 9:4, 7-9, 16-19; Luke 18:1, 7-8.

[2119] 1 Chronicles 29:10-13; 1 Timothy 1:17; Revelation 5:11-13.

[2120] 1 Corinthians 14:16; Revelation 22:20.

[2121] Hebrews 12:28; Genesis 4:3–8 with Hebrews 11:4; Exodus 20:2–6; Exodus 25:40; Leviticus 10; 1 Samuel 15:22; Matthew 15:1–14; Deuteronomy 12:8; Deuteronomy 17:3; Colossians 2:8-10, 16-23.

[2122] 1 Corinthians 4:6; 1 Corinthians 11:2, 16; Matthew 15:9; Colossians 2:8-10, 16-23; Ephesians 4:2-3.

[2123] Jeremiah 19:4-5; Colossians 2:18-23.

[2124] Leviticus 23:4, 37; Hebrews 9:1-10, 24; 1 Chronicles 6:31; 1 Chronicles 15:16; 1 Chronicles 23:5; 1 Chronicles 25:1-6; 2 Chronicles 5:12; 2 Chronicles 7:6; 2 Chronicles 29:25-30.

[2125] John 4:21, 23-24; Hebrews 12:27-29; Acts 7:48; Acts 17:25.

[2126] 1 Corinthians 11:13-14; 1 Corinthians 14:26, 40.

[2127] Leviticus 23:3; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 11:17-18, 33-34; 1 Corinthians 14:23, 26; Hebrews 10:25.

[2128] Numbers 28:1-10.

[2129] John 20:19.

[2130] Exodus 20:8; Hebrews 4:9; Hebrews 10:25.

[2131] Genesis 4:26; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 2 Timothy 2:22.

[2132] 1 Timothy 2:1; Philippians 4:6.

[2133] Acts 15:21; Colossians 4:16; 1 Timothy 4:13.

[2134] 1 Timothy 4:13; 1 Timothy 5:17; 2 Timothy 4:2.

[2135] 2 Chronicles 29:30; Matthew 26:30; 1 Corinthians 14:26; Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16.

[2136] 1 Corinthians 11:33-34.

[2137] Genesis 14:18-20; Psalm 96:8; 1 Corinthians 16:2.

[2138] Numbers 6:23-27; 2 Corinthians 13:14.

[2139] Matthew 28:20; 1 Corinthians 4:6; 1 Corinthians 11:2.

[2140] 1 Corinthians 14:26, 33, 40.

[2141] Colossians 1:17; 1 Timothy 5:17; Galatians 6:6; Romans 12:8; Hebrews 13:7.

[2142] Romans 12:8; 1 Timothy 5:17; Hebrews 13:17; 1 Peter 5:1-3.

[2143] Exodus 19:8-11; Luke 13:10-17.

[2144] Exodus 10:9; Exodus 12:26; 2 Chronicles 20:13; Matthew 19:14.

[2145] See Larger Catechism, 178-196, and the original Westminster Directory of Worship for helpful guides.

[2146] Matthew 6:7-13; Mark 11:24; Luke 18:1; Ephesians 6:18, 19; 1 Thessalonians 5:16-18; 1 Timothy 2:1, 2.

[2147] Ephesians 6:18, 19; Psalm 15; Isaiah 29:13; 1 Corinthians 11:28.

[2148] Romans 10:15; Titus 3:5.

[2149] Genesis 17:3, 7; Genesis 24:52; 1 Kings 8:54; Psalms 95:6; Ephesians 1:15–23; Ephesians 2:4–7.

[2150] 1 Timothy 4:13.

[2151] Matthew 26:30; Mark 14:26; 1 Corinthians 14:26; Ephesians 5:19; Colossians 3:16.

[2152] Romans 1:16, 17; Romans 10:14-17; 2 Timothy 2:15.

[2153] Acts 10:44; Acts 20:27; Philippians 1:1-11.

[2154] 1 Chronicles 12:32.

[2155] 1 Timothy 5:16; 2 Timothy 2:15.

[2156] Romans 8:29.

[2157] 1 Corinthians 2:1-5.

[2158] Acts 20:20.

[2159] 2 Timothy 3:16; 1 Corinthians 9:22.

[2160] Acts 20:26.

[2161] Acts 17:16-34.

[2162] Acts 20:31, 32.

[2163] 1 Corinthians 11:23; Ephesians 6:19; Hebrews 13:17.

[2164] Acts 17:11; James 1:19-25.

[2165] Genesis 14:20; Psalm 96:8; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2; 2 Corinthians 8-9.

[2166] Acts 5:2.

[2167] Numbers 6:24-26; 2 Corinthians 13:14.

[2168] Matthew 26:26-30; Mark 14:22-26; Luke 22:15-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-25.

[2169] 1 Corinthians 11:23-25.

[2170] E.g., Matthew 28:18-20; Ezekiel 36:25-27.

[2171] Genesis 17:7.

[2172] Colossians 2:11-12.

[2173] Mark 10:14.

[2174] 1 Corinthians 7:14.

[2175] Acts 2:42; Acts 20:7, 11; 1 Corinthians 11:2, 23, 26.

[2176] Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:18.

[2177] 1 Corinthians 11:28; 1 Corinthians 5:9-13.

[2178] 1 Corinthians 1:4; Philippians 1:3-11 Colossians 1:3-6 1:28; 1 Corinthians 5:9-13.

[2179] Acts 14:22.

[2180] Judges 20:26-28; Acts 14:23.

[2181] 2 Chronicles 20:3-4; Ezra 8:21-23; Esther 4:6.

[2182] Judges 20:26-28; 1 Samuel 20:34; 1 Samuel 31:13; 2 Samuel 1:11-12.

[2183] Luke 2:37.

[2184] Nehemiah 1:3, 4; Daniel 9:13.

[2185] 1 Kings 21:27-29; Psalm 35:13.

[2186] 1 Samuel 7:6; Joel 2:12; Jonah 3:5-8.

[2187] Ezra 4:16; Ezra 8:23; Esther 4:16; Daniel 1:12; Acts 9:9.

[2188] Ezra 4:16; Esther 4:16; Daniel 1:12; Acts 9:9.

[2189] Matthew 6:16-18.

[2190] Joel 2:15-16; Acts 13:2.

[2191] 2 Chronicles 20:3; Nehemiah 9:1; Jonah 3:5-8.

[2192] Leviticus 16:29-31; Matthew 9:15.

[2193] Judges 20:26; 1 Samuel 7:6; 2 Samuel 1:12; 2 Samuel 12:16-23; Daniel 10:3-13; Acts 27:33-34; Luke 2:37.

[2194] Isaiah 58.

[2195] Nehemiah 1:4; Daniel 9:3; Joel 2:12; Acts 13:2.

[2196] 2 Chronicles 20:3; Nehemiah 9:1; Jonah 3:5-8.

[2197] John 3:16; 1 Peter 1:1-9; James 1:12.

[2198] 1 Chronicles 16:8-12; Psalm 105:1; Psalm 136:26; Ephesians 5:20; Philippians 4:4-7.

[2199] Psalm 107:8, 9.

[2200]Genesis 1:28; Genesis 2:23-25; John 2:1-12.

[2201]Genesis 24; Genesis 27:46-28; Proverbs 31; 1 Corinthians 7:39; 2 Corinthians 6:14; Ephesians 5:21-23.

[2202]Ephesians 5:21-23; Colossians 3:18, 19.

[2203] 1 Timothy 4:7; Psalm 119:11.

[2204] Matthew 6:5-9; Luke 5:16; Luke 11:9; Luke 18:1; Colossians 4:2; 1 Thessalonians 5:17; Hebrews 4:16.

[2205] Matthew 4:4; Matthew 19:4.

[2206] Ezra 7:10; Proverbs 22:17-19; Psalm 1:1-3; Psalm 119:97-99; Acts 17:11; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 4:13; John 17:17.

[2207] Colossians 3:16; Ephesians 3:18-21; Psalm 92:1-2; Psalm 98:1; Psalm 100:1; Psalm 106:1.

[2208] James 1:13-15.

[2209] Romans 12:2; Philippians 3:13, 14; Timothy 4:7.

[2210] Joshua 24:14, 15; Acts 2:39; 2 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 3:15.

[2211] Psalm 1:2; Psalm 119:99; Philippians 4:8; James 1:25.

[2212] Genesis 8:20, 21; Job 1:5; Joshua 24:14, 15.

[2213] Genesis 9:3; Matthew 14:19; Mark 8:7; Luke 12:24; John 6:23; Acts 27:38; 1 Thessalonians 5:16-18; 1 Timothy 4:4-5.

[2214] Acts 20:20; Romans 1:11, 12.

[2215] Psalm 1:2; Psalm 119:99; Acts 2:24; Acts 17:11; Acts 20:20.

[2216] Deuteronomy 6:4-9; 2 Timothy 3:16; Acts 18:11.

[2217] Isaiah 9:6-7; Psalm 2:6; Ephesians 1:22; Colossians 1:18; Colossians 2:8-10; Revelation 1:12-20; Exodus 24:7; Deuteronomy 12:32; Joshua 1:8; Psalm 1:2; Psalm 119:89; Isaiah 40:8; Isaiah 66:2; Matthew 5:17-19; Matthew 19:3-6; 1 Thessalonians 2:13.

[2218] 1 Corinthians 4:6; 1 Corinthians 7:17; 1 Timothy 4:13; 2 Timothy 3:16; John 3:3; John 18:36; Acts 17:11; 1 Corinthians 11:12; Ephesians 2:20.

[2219] Ephesians 5:23; Colossians 1:18; Matthew 17:5.

[2220] Titus 1:5.

[2221] Psalm 133:1; Ephesians 4:3; Acts 2:44-45; 1 John 3:17; 2 Corinthians 8 and 9; Acts 11:29-30.

[2222] 1 Corinthians 14:40.

[2223] 1 Corinthians 11:13-14; 1 Corinthians 14:26, 40.

[2224] 1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 12:12-13; Psalm 2:8; Revelation 7:9; Romans 15:9-12.

[2225] John 14:23; Ephesians 1:10, 22-23; Ephesians 5:23, 27, 32; Colossians 1:18.

[2226] Jeremiah 3:15; 1 Corinthians 11:23; Ephesians 4:11.

[2227] Matthew 28:18-19; Ephesians 4:12-13.

[2228] Hebrews 10:19-25.

[2229] Deuteronomy 23:21-23; Psalm 76:11; Ecclesiastes 5:4-6.

[2230] Acts 2:37-47; Acts 8:9-13; 1 John 2:19; 1 Peter 5:1-5; Acts 20:28.

[2231] Acts 16:32; Acts 19:2-5; Ruth 1:16; 2 Kings 5:18-19; 1 Corinthians 8; Romans 14; Acts 8:36-39; Acts 16:31-3; Romans 10.9.

[2232] Romans 16:17; 2 Timothy 3:5.

[2233] Hebrews 13:17; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Peter 5:1-5; Acts 20:29-30.

[2234] Matthew 3:6; Acts 2:38-41; Acts 8:12, 36.

[2235] Given that the validity of Roman Catholic baptism has been debated among eminent godly theologians since the late 19th century, we leave it to the discretion of the local session to decide this matter.

[2236] Acts 19:2-5.

[2237] Genesis 17:1–14; Acts 15:16; 1 Corinthians 1:16.

[2238] For the definition of ‘true church’, see Westminster Confession of Faith, chapter 25, paragraphs 3-6.

[2239] Philippians 2:29; Romans 16:2; Ephesians 6:22.

[2240] 1 Corinthians 5:3; Romans 16:17-18.

[2241] Matthew 18:1-5.

[2242] Psalm 119:99; Proverbs 5:13; Deuteronomy 31:12-13; Proverbs 22:6; Luke 2:46; Ezra 7:10.

[2243] Psalm 34:11; Psalm 78:5; Genesis 18:19; Exodus 12:26-27; 1 Corinthians 13:11.

[2244] 1 Corinthians 11:27-31.

[2245] Luke 7:5; Romans 16:5; 1 Corinthians 16:19; Colossians 4:15; Philemon 2.

[2246] Matthew 9:35; Matthew 13:54; Mark 1:39; Acts 13:1, 43; Acts 18:7-8; Acts 19:1 with Ephesians 1:1 and Revelation 2:1.

[2247] Acts 16:5; Romans 16:16; 1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 4:17; 1 Corinthians 11:16.

[2248] Matthew 28:19; Acts 1:8; Romans 15:19-23.

[2249] Psalm 107:32; Acts 14:23; Acts 15:22; Titus 1:5.

[2250] Psalm 79:13; Isaiah 63:7.

[2251] Acts 20:28; 1 Corinthians 1:2; Numbers 1:2; Psalm 87:6.

[2252] 2 Timothy 2:2; Titus 1:5; Acts 14:21-23.

[2253] Mark 6:39-40; Luke 9:14-16.

[2254] 2 Corinthians 1:1; 2 Corinthians 8:1; Galatians 1:2, 22; Colossians 4:15; 1 Corinthians 16:19.

[2255] Matthew 18:15-20; Nehemiah 4:19-20; Romans 15:1-3; 2 Corinthians 8:23.

[2256] Acts 8:5, 14-15.

[2257] 2 Corinthians 11:28.

[2258] Romans 12:6-8; Ephesians 4:11-13; Acts 6:3-6; Acts 14:23; Acts 20:28; Titus 1:5; 1 Timothy 3:1-13; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Corinthians 12:28-29; 1 Corinthians 13:8; Philippians 1:1.

[2259] Since the Reformation, confusion over the use of the word ‘office’ has led to many different views respecting the number of offices Christ has appointed. Some true churches maintain that there are four, others three, and still others two. In view of this manifest confusion, any office bearer who may have reservations about subscribing to the four-office view set forth by the Synod of Dort and Westminster Assembly may hold an alternate view.

[2260] Hebrews 5:4; Numbers 16:1-30; Deuteronomy 1:13; Acts 1:21-26; Acts 6:3-6; Acts 20:28.

[2261] Acts 9:15; Acts 13:2; Mark 3:13-19; Luke 6:12-19; 1 Timothy 3:2-13.

[2262] Acts 6:3; Acts 6:5-6; 1 Timothy 3:1-13; cf. Acts 14:23 with Acts 20:28.

[2263] Genesis 24:58; Acts 13:2-3.

[2264] Acts 1:23-25; Acts 6:6; Acts 13:3; 1 Timothy 4:14.

[2265] Titus 1:6; 1 Timothy 2:11; cf. 1 Timothy 3:2 with 1 Timothy 3:12; 1 Corinthians 14:34; Acts 6:3.

[2266] Titus 1:5; Acts 14:21-23.

[2267] Philippians 1:1; 2 Timothy 4:3; 1 Timothy 5:7.

[2268] Ephesians 4:11-13; 1 Peter 5:2; Revelation 1:20.

[2269] Numbers 1:44; Acts 15:2; Matthew 18:17.

[2270] 1 Timothy 5:20.

[2271] Deuteronomy 12:32; Matthew 15:9; Acts 17:25; Matthew 4:9-10; Deuteronomy 4:15-20; Exodus 20:4, 6; Colossians 2:23; Hebrews 13:17.

[2272] Acts 15:6, 22-29; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 5:17; 1 Peter 5:1.

[2273] Hebrews 13:17; Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 5:1-5.

[2274] Malachi 2:7; Ezekiel 3:16-21; Matthew 9:36; 1 Peter 5:2; John 21:15-17; 1 Timothy 4:13-16.

[2275] 1 Corinthians 9:14-16; Acts 9:15; Galatians 2:7; Acts 8:29; Jeremiah 1:7; Acts 13:2-4; Acts 22:21; Acts 15:40.

[2276] 1 Thessalonians 2:4; 1 Timothy 2:15.

[2277] Acts 20:20; James 5:14; 1 Peter 5:5; Matthew 18:5-10.

[2278] Nehemiah 8:2-8; Acts 6:4; Acts 13:5-7; 2 Corinthians 5:20; Ephesians 4:11-12; Colossians 4:17; 2 Timothy 4:5; 1 Timothy 5:17; 2 Timothy 4:2; 1 Peter 1:25.

[2279] Romans 12:6-7; 1 Corinthians 12:28; Ephesians 4:11; 1 Timothy 5:17.

[2280] John 3:6.

[2281] Acts 5:34; Acts 22:3; Luke 2:46.

[2282] Philippians 1:1; 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Timothy 5:17; Romans 12:8.

[2283] James 5:14; 1 Peter 5:5.

[2284] Acts 20:28-30; Revelation 2:20; 1 Timothy 1:3.

[2285] Acts 6:1.

[2286] Luke 6:32-35; Luke 10:27; Leviticus 19:10; James 1:27; James 2:15–16; Deuteronomy 15:8; Proverbs 14:21.

[2287] Acts 6:3; 1 Timothy 3:8-10.

[2288] 1 Timothy 3:1-7; Romans 12:6-7; 2 Timothy 2:2.

[2289] 2 Corinthians 8:16, 17.

[2290] 2 Timothy 2:2; 1 Timothy 3:1-7; James 3:1.

[2291] 1 Timothy 3:1-7; Titus 1:5-9.

[2292] 2 Timothy 3:2-4, 10ff; Titus 1:5-9.

[2293] 2 Timothy 2:24, 10ff; Titus 1:5-9.

[2294] 2 Timothy 2:15; 2 Timothy 4:2; Titus 2:6ff.; 1 Corinthians 2:1-4          .

[2295] Acts 16:1-3.

[2296] 1 Timothy 3.

[2297] Hebrews 13:17; 2 Corinthians 8:16-17.

[2298] 2 Timothy 2:1-2; 2 Timothy 3:10-17.

[2299] 1 Timothy 5:22; 1 Timothy 3:6; Hebrews 5:12-13.

[2300] 1 Corinthians 9:9-14; Luke 10:7; Philippians 4:16-19; 1 Timothy 5:17-18; Galatians 6:6.

[2301] Acts 13:3; Acts 15:40; 1 Timothy 4:14; 1 Timothy 5:22.

[2302] 2 Samuel 8:16; 1 Kings 4:3.

[2303] Acts 13:2-3; Acts 14:23.

[2304] 1 Corinthians 14:40; Titus 1:5.

[2305] 1 Timothy 4:14; 2 Timothy 1:6.

[2306] Deuteronomy 1:13; Exodus 18:21; Numbers 11:16-17; Philemon 12-14.

[2307] 1 Timothy 3:1-7; Titus 1:5-9; 1 Peter 5:1-3.

[2308] 1 Timothy 3:1-13; Titus 1:6-9.

[2309] 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Peter 5:2.

[2310] 1 Peter 4:8; Proverbs 10:12; Proverbs 17:9.

[2311] Matthew 18:15; James 5:19.

[2312] Acts 13:2-3; Acts 14:23.

[2313] Deuteronomy 1:13; Exodus 18:21; Numbers 11:16-17; Philemon 12-14.

[2314] Acts 6:1-6; 1 Timothy 3:8-13.

[2315] 1 Timothy 3:1-13; Titus 1:6-9.

[2316] 1 Timothy 3:1; 1 Peter 5:2.

[2317] 1 Peter 4:8; Proverbs 10:12; Proverbs 17:9.

[2318] Matthew 18:15; James 5:19.

[2319] Acts 13:2-3; Acts 14:23.

[2320] Acts 21:17; Acts 28:21; Acts 15:4; Acts 17:15; Philemon 17.

[2321] Acts 9:26-28; Philippians 2:25-30; Colossians 4:10, 17; 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21; 1 Timothy 3:10.

[2322] Acts 9:26-28; 1 John 4:1; Philippians 2:25-30; 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21; 1 Timothy 3:10; Colossians 4:10, 17.

[2323] 2 Corinthians 8:22-24; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 1 Timothy 6:3; 1 Thessalonians 5:20-21; 1 Timothy 3:10.

[2324] 1 Corinthians 16:3; 2 Corinthians 8:18; 2 Corinthians 9:3; Philippians 2:19-28; Titus 3:12; 3 John 6.

[2325] Leviticus 19:32; Deuteronomy 32:7; 1 Kings 12:6; Proverbs 16:31; 1 Timothy 5:1; Psalm 71:9, 18; Job 32:6-8.

[2326] Numbers 8:23-26; 1 Samuel 18:4-5.

[2327] Acts 15:37-40.

[2328] Colossians 4:10; Colossians 4:11; 2 Timothy 4:11.

[2329] Leviticus 19:13, 35-36; Luke 6:31; Deuteronomy 15:13-14; Proverbs 20:23; Micah 6:8.

[2330] 1 Kings 19:4-9; Jonah 1:1-3; Jonah 4:3, 9; Hebrews 10:24-25; 1 Thessalonians 5:11; Isaiah 40:31.

[2331] Proverbs 22:29; Exodus 36:1-6; Exodus 18:25; 1 Chronicles 15:22; 1 Chronicles 25:7.

[2332] 1 Timothy 5:19-20; James 3:1; Titus 1:6-9; 1 Timothy 3:2; 2 Corinthians 2:5-8.

[2333] Proverbs 29:2; 1 Samuel 2:28-30.

[2334] 1 Timothy 4:1; 2 Peter 2:20-22; Hebrews 6:4-8; Galatians 1:8-9; Deuteronomy 13:6-11; Hebrews 10:26-29; 1 John 2:19.

[2335] Leviticus 19:32; Deuteronomy 32:7; 1 Kings 12:6; Proverbs 16:31; 1 Timothy 5:1; Psalm 71:9, 18; Job 32:6-8.

[2336] Numbers 8:23-26; 1 Samuel 8:4-5.

[2337] Proverbs 22:29; Exodus 36:1-6; Exodus 18:25; 1 Chronicles 15:22; 1 Chronicles 25:7; Acts 15:37-40.

[2338] 2 Timothy 4:10; Proverbs 29:2; 1 Samuel 2:28-30.

[2339] Ephesians 5:21; Matthew 18:20.

[2340] Matthew 18:15-20.

[2341] 1 Corinthians 5:12; 1 Corinthians 6:4.

[2342] AKA: ‘consistory.’

[2343] Philippians 1:1; Timothy 3:8-12.

[2344] Acts 20:20; Acts 20:31, 32; Philippians 1:7-11.

[2345] Acts 15:1-35.

[2346] Matthew 18:15-20; 1 Corinthians 5:1-13; Ephesians 5:25-27; 2 Corinthians 2:5-8.

[2347] 2 Corinthians 2:5-8.

[2348] Deuteronomy 1:16-17; Proverbs 24:23; Isaiah 1:17; Micah 6:8; James 2:9.

[2349] There must be multiple witnesses (Numbers 35:30; Deuteronomy 19:15; Deuteronomy 17:6-7; Matthew 18:16; 2 Corinthians 13:1; Hebrews 10:28). These witnesses may include a person’s own confession, eyewitness accounts, or clear circumstantial evidence (Joshua 7:22) such as a published document or a written communication.

[2350] Genesis 1:21, 24; Genesis 2:7.

[2351] Psalm 2:10-12; Isaiah 49:23.

[2352] This index covers the Directory for the Worship of God and the Directory for Church Government. It does not include the Westminster Doctrinal Standards, at this time.

[2353] This reference appendix is included in the .pdf (online version), but not in the printed edition.